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K ο λ ο β ο ύ Ε λ ε υ θ ε ρ ί α - Κ λ ε ι ώ Κ ρ α ν ι ώ τ ο υ Ά ν ν α

ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΕΘΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΘΡΗΣΚΕΥΜΑΤΩΝ

ΠΑΙΔΑΓΩΓΙΚΟ ΙΝΣΤΙΤΟΥΤΟ

ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ

ΑΘΗΝΑ

AΓΓΛIKA Ε ´ ΔΗΜΟΤΙΚΟY

ISBN 978-960-06-2176-1

ΕΡΓΟ ΣΥΓΧΡΗΜΑΤΟΔΟΤΟΥΜΕΝΟ 75% ΑΠΟ ΤΟ ΕΥΡΩΠΑΪΚΟ ΚΟΙΝΩΝΙΚΟ ΤΑΜΕΙΟ ΚΑΙ 25% ΑΠΟ ΕΘΝΙΚΟΥΣ ΠΟΡΟΥΣ

AΓΓΛ

IKA

Ε´

ΔΗ

ΜΟ

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Βιβ

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ENGLISH 5th GRADE

Teacher’s book

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ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΕΙΣ Ελευθερία Κλειώ Κολοβού, Εκπαιδευτικός ΠΕ6 Κρανιώτου Άννα, Εκπαιδευτικός ΠΕ6 ΚΡΙΤΕΣ-ΑΞΙΟΛΟΓΗΤΕΣ Μελίνα Παπακωνσταντίνου, Μέλος ΔΕΠ Παρασκευή Λεοντίου-Φερεντίνου, τ. Σχολική Σύμβουλος Παναγιώτα Γκουντή, Εκπαιδευτικός ΠΕ6

ΕΙΚΟΝΟΓΡΑΦΗΣΗ Ελισάβετ Βαβούρη, Εικονογράφος

ΦΙΛΟΛΟΓΙΚΗ ΕΠΙΜΕΛΕΙΑ Χρυσάνθη Αυγέρου, Eκπαιδευτικός ΠΕ6

ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΙ ΤΟΥ ΜΑΘΗΜΑΤΟΣΚΑΤΑ ΤΗ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΗ Ιωσήφ Ε. Χρυσοχόος Πάρεδρος ε.θ. του Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου Πέτρος Μπερερής Σύμβουλος του Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου ΥΠΕΥΘΥΝΟΣ ΥΠΟΕΡΓΟΥ Χρυσούλα Κούτρα, Εκπαιδευτικός ΠΕ6

ΑΝΑΔΟΧΟΣ Σ. ΠΑΤΑΚΗΣ Α.Ε.Ε.Ε

ΠΡΟΕΚΤΥΠΩΤΙΚΕΣ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΕΣ ΒΙΒΛΙΟΣΥΝΕΡΓΑΤΙΚΗ Α.Ε.Π.Ε.Ε

Στη συγγραφή συνεργάστηκαν και οι Francis Baker και Παρασκευή Μουστακίδου

Γ΄ Κ.Π.Σ. / ΕΠΕΑΕΚ ΙΙ / Ενέργεια 2.2.1 / Κατηγορία Πράξεων 2.2.1.α: «Αναμόρφωση των προγραμμάτων σπουδών και συγγραφή νέων εκπαιδευτικών πακέτων» ΠΑΙΔΑΓΩΓΙΚΟ ΙΝΣΤΙΤΟΥΤΟ Δημήτριος Γ. Βλάχος Ομότιμος Καθηγητής του Α.Π.Θ Πρόεδρος του Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου

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Αναπληρωτής Επιστημονικός Υπεύθυνος Έργου Γεώργιος Οικονόμου Σύμβουλος Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου

Έργο συγχρηματοδοτούμενο 75% από το Ευρωπαϊκό Κοινωνικό Ταμείο και 25% από εθνικούς πόρους.

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ΥΠΟΥΡΓΕΙΟ ΕΘΝΙΚΗΣ ΠΑΙΔΕΙΑΣ ΚΑΙ ΘΡΗΣΚΕΥΜΑΤΩΝ

ΠΑΙΔΑΓΩΓΙΚΟ ΙΝΣΤΙΤΟΥΤΟ

Ε λ ε υ θ ε ρ ί α - Κ λ ε ι ώ K ο λ ο β ο ύ Ά ν ν α Κ ρ α ν ι ώ τ ο υ

ΑΝΑΔΟΧΟΣ ΣΥΓΓΡΑΦΗΣ:

AΓΓΛIKA Ε ´ ΔΗΜΟΤΙΚΟY

Βιβλίο καθηγητή

ΟΡΓΑΝΙΣΜΟΣ ΕΚΔΟΣΕΩΣ ΔΙΔΑΚΤΙΚΩΝ ΒΙΒΛΙΩΝ

ΑΘΗΝΑ

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INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSEThe E’ Class English Language Coursebook

is proposed by the Pedagogical Institute as a tool to support the teaching and learning processes in the Greek State Primary School. Coursebook design and content are based upon the principles of literacy, plurilingual-ism and pluriculturalism, as set by the Cross-curricular Unified Framework (2003).

This coursebook is based on thematic units, which, we believe, will attract the interests of the E’ Class pupils. Moreover, the teachers who will introduce the coursebook into the classroom procedure should consider the pupils’ specific needs as well as the needs of the local community. For example, a coursebook unit that explores the environmental issue should be tailored in order to reflect local problems and the particular pupils’ interests. In other words, no coursebook can be the sole source of knowledge. During the course of implementation of each thematic unit, the cross-curricular element will emerge within the framework of a well-structured and organized project. Projects will enable pupils to explore issues such as local history or the natural characteristics of the eco-system (flora and fauna) in order to offer solutions aiming to improve living conditions in the area. The solutions will emerge through the learners’ involvement in the local affairs as social agents and active citizens. This process will facilitate the holistic approach of knowledge and the deep understanding of fundamental cross-curricular concepts (e.g. similarity, difference, space etc). In this way the realistic element of English language teaching will prevail and the value of the foreign language as a communication medium as well as a tool for the development of ideas, values and emotions will be established.

The Cross - ThemaTiC / Cross - CurriCular approaCh

The cross - thematic / cross - curricular approach enables pupils to acquire a unified body of knowledge and skills, following a holistic approach to knowledge. This approach will allow them to form their own personal opinions on scientific issues that are closely interrelated and are also related with issues of everyday life. In this way, pupils can form their own perception of the world, their own ‘Cosmo’ theory and their own opinions about the world they should get to know, love and live in. The cross - thematic / cross - curricular approach is supplemented by methods of active acquisition of knowledge, which are applied in the teaching of individual subjects, and are further explored during cross-thematic activities which take place during the teaching of each theme. Fundamental concepts

Fundamental concepts (e.g. similarity - difference / system / communication / time - place / culture - civilization / interaction - change - evolution, etc) can be explored across various scientific fields and can facilitate the horizontal linking of school subjects. Some fundamental concepts that can be called cross-thematic are common in several subjects of the same grade, often appear in school subjects of different classes and can contribute to the promotion of attitudes and values that are directly related to the main aims of school education. The combination of the above concepts by adopting relevant practices facilitates the implementation of the cross - thematic approach, as it highlights the pupil’s multidimensional perception of the world.

Teacher’s Book • Introduction 5

ENGLIGH LANGUAGE TEACHING IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips6

The following Methodoligical Tips are here to help you make the most of your teaching. Remember there is no one right way to teach. The key aim is to become aware of what is possible.The act of teaching is essentially a constant process of choosing between different options. The tips offered here are a means of enriching your list of options. By following the guidelines, together with a little inspiration, these should be of assistance to make your lessons more rewarding, both for you and for your pupils.1. mulTiple iNTelliGeNCes

Every learner adopts an individual style, or a mixture of styles, in order to (re)construct knowledge. Therefore, during the classroom procedures it is difficult for teachers to assess the degree of new knowledge pupils have conquered. On the contrary, learners should be treated as individuals, who bring their own unique characteristics, e.g. rhythm, pace, style, to the learning process (Gardner 1983). Howard Gardner proposes a new view of intelligence which goes beyond the older

concept of IQ which focused on mathematical and linguistic abilities. • His new intelligence areas includes: Logical-

Mathematical, Linguistic, Spatial, Musical, Bodily-Kinaesthetic, Inter-personal, Intra-personal and Naturalistic Intelligence. Daniel Coleman added Emotional Intelligence.

2. laNGuaGe learNiNG sTraTeGY DeFiNiTioNs

Foreign language learning strategies are specific actions, behaviours, steps or techniques which pupils use – often consciously – to improve their progress in apprehending, internalizing and using L2. Research has repeatedly shown that the conscious, tailored use of such strategies is related to successful language achievement and proficiency. Well-tailored combinations of these strategies have a much greater impact than single strategies. There are different classification systems. We show here one of the most complete systems, devised by O’Malley & Chamot, where they have divided the strategies into Metacognitive, Social Affective and Cognitive.

a. metacognitive strategies

Metacognitive strategies involve thinking about the learning process, planning for learning, monitoring the learning task, and evaluating how well one has learned. 1. Advanced Organization Previewing the main idea and concepts of the material to be learned, often by skimming the text for the organizing principle.2. Organizational Planning Planning the parts, sequence, main ideas, or language functions to be expressed orally or in writing.3. Directed Attention Deciding in advance to attend in general to a learning task and to ignore irrelevant distracters.4. Selective Attention Deciding in advance to attend to specific aspects of input, often by scanning for key words, concepts, and/or linguistic markers.5. Self-monitoring Checking one’s comprehension during listening or reading, or checking the accuracy and/or appropriateness of one’s oral or written production while it is taking place.

6. Self-evaluation Judging how well one has accomplished a learning activity after it has been completed.7. Self-management Understanding the conditions that help one learn and arranging for the presence of those conditions.

B. social affective strategies

Social and affective strategies involve interacting with another person to assist learning, or using affective control to assist a learning task.1. Questions for Clarification Eliciting from teacher or peer additional explanation, rephrasing, or verification.2. Cooperation Working together with peers to solve a problem, pool information, check a learning task, model a language activity, or get feedback an oral or written performance.3. Self-talk Reducing anxiety by using mental techniques that make one feel competent to do the learning task.4. Self-reinforcement Providing personal motivation by arranging

m e T h o D o l o G i C a l T i p s

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 7

Based on Chamot, O’ Malley et als. 1987

rewards for oneself when a language learning activity has been completed successfully.

C. Cognitive strategies

Cognitive strategies involve interacting with the material to be learned, manipulating the material mentally or physically, or applying a specific technique to a learning task.1. Repetition Imitating a language model exactly including oral practice, silent practice or copying.2. Rehearsal Rehearsing the language needed, with attention to meaning, for an oral or written task.3. Resourcing Using target language reference materials such as dictionaries, encyclopedias, or textbooks.4. Translation Using the first language as a base for understanding and/or producing the second language.5. Grouping Classifying words, terminology or concepts ac-cording to their attributes.6. Substitution Using a replacement target language word or phrase when the intended word or phrase is not available.7. Note-taking Writing down key words and concepts in

abbreviated verbal, graphic, or numerical form during a listening or reading activity.8. Summarizing Making a mental or written summary of informa-tion gained through listening or reading.9. Deduction/Induction Applying rules to understand or produce the second language.10. Imagery Using visual images to (either mental or actual) understand and remember new information.11. Auditory Representation Playing back in one’s mind the sound of a word, phrase or longer language sequence.12. Contextualization Assisting comprehension or recall by placing a word or phrase in a meaningful language sequence or situational context.13. Elaboration Relating new information to prior knowledge, relating different parts of new information to each other, or making meaningful personal associations to the new information14. Transfer Using previous linguistics knowledge or prior skills to assist comprehension or production.15. Inferencing Using information in an oral or written text to guess meanings, predict outcomes, or complete missing parts.

3. DiFFereNTiaTioN In the classroom we usually work with

pupils who have reached different levels of language competences or who have special learning needs. To offer our pupils the opportunity to take full advantage of the classroom experience, we should design tasks of varying degree of difficulty, i.e. tasks that can be adapted depending on specific learner needs.

3.A. Principles of Differentiated Teaching• Differentiation aims at maximising learn-

ing and development of each student.• In a differentiated classroom pupils are

matched with tasks according to their in-dividual learner needs.

• Open-ended tasks i.e. tasks that allow for multiple right answers, such as ‘predict

the content of a text from its title’, ‘write a paragraph’, ‘role-play’, ‘put the items in order of importance or preference’, ‘projects’ etc. are particularly appropriate for mixed-ability classes because students can produce language at their own level. Closed tasks are less appropriate.

• Pupils can work in groups of similar competence level (hom*ogeneous groups) when doing ‘tiered tasks’. Tiered tasks are those where one has two or three versions of the same task varying in terms of difficulty.

• Flexible classroom organization is a ‘must’ for differentiation.

3.B. Tiered tasks Tiered tasks in the Appendix are to be used

by groups of pupils or even the whole class

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips8

instead of their versions in the main part of the book. If the class or some pupils find a task in the book too easy or too difficult, they can choose not to do this task and try a more difficult or easier version of the task in the Appendix.

When doing tiered tasks it is advisable for you to split the class in more or less hom*ogeneous groups i.e. groups of pupils of similar competence level in the specific area and objective on which the task focuses. 3.C. Projects

Projects are based on the principles of experiential and collaborative learning. As such, their main aim is to enable learners to learn by doing in order to enhance their critical thinking and interactive skills while their implementation presupposes work in teams. Therefore, for maximum active par-ticipation, learners should: • be exposed to collaborative and cooperative

work and reflect upon their role and contributions as team members;

• take initiatives, decide and agree on a topic; select sub-topics;

• conduct research, plan, organize, read, write, interact, compile, present, perform, publish their own work and

• evaluate the process as well as the end product. Projects are open-ended and flexible

and therefore provide an excellent basis for differentiating teaching/learning. For example, at the research stage of a project, more competent learners can work on more difficult texts, or with less teacher support. Furthermore, some pupils might prefer to work alone, while others might work in groups. Another example of differentiation, where we also apply the Multiple Intelligences Theory, is as follows. In a project on sports activities one group of pupils might be guided to demonstrate a sport as a kinaesthetic option, another group of visual-spatial learners could collaborate on designing a poster with the rules for the sport, and another group of students with verbal-linguistic intelligence could develop a

report on the sport. 3.D. Language Awareness Activities

Language awareness activities guide pupils in noticing useful language forms in the text used in the specific lesson or in texts read in previous lessons (or in sentences assembled from previously read texts). They are more appropriate for mixed-ability classes.Examples of language awareness activities:• Pupils underline in the text(s) words that

end in -s or -’s and put them in categories e.g. plural nouns, simple present, is, has, genitive

• pupils underline in the text(s) words that end in -ing and put them in categories

• pupils underline in the text(s) phrases with the preposition ‘in’ and put then in two categories: time and place

• pupils underline in the text(s) the adjectives that are used to describe the nouns

3.E. Alternative assessment• Differentiation is compatible with alternative

assessment and self-assessment, e.g. portfolio, learner diaries, can-do-statements etc. in the CEFR (2001)

• Such types of assessment are growth-referenced, that is, they function as a progress map recording and monitoring a pupil’s improvement over time, and are not based on a comparison of each learner’s performance with that of the other pupils (norm-referenced assessment).

DIFFERENTIATION Teacher’s Book references:• Projects: see p. 24, 28, 31, 41, 53, 65,

73• Tiered Tasks: - PB Appendix: from p. 133 to p. 152 - AB Appendix: from p. 64 to p. 86

4. sKillsAccording to current relevant literature

and research, one of the main goals of language teaching nowadays concerns the development of receptive (i.e. of reading and listening) and productive skills (i.e. of writing, speaking, oral interaction and communication). A skills-based approach

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 9

requires that the teacher integrate into the syllabus activities aiming to enable pupils to view learning as a process. This process involves the activation of natural acquisition mechanisms through the development of reading, writing, listening and oral communication strategies. 4.1 reaDiNG 4.1.A. Extensive reading• Simplified Readers – The use of simplified readers can be

successful because the readers are graded for grammar and vocabulary. This helps the pupils read with greater ease and confidence.

– We recommend that classes have simplified reader libraries. The readers should be coded for level and genre and should have a signing out system to keep track of which pupils have borrowed which readers.

– See recommended list of simplified readers in TB p. 140.

• Extensive Reading tasks – Set aside time, say every 2 weeks, when

pupils can report back and tell their classmates about the books they are reading

– Pupils keep a weekly reading diary – Ask the pupils to write short book

reviews – Have a comment sheet inside each reader – Ask pupils to draw a picture of a scene – Map the story – Discuss whether the story would make a

good film4.1.B. Intensive Reading• Ideas for Intensive Reading tasks – Put the illustrations of the text in the

correct order – Put the cut up paragraphs in the correct

order – Read the texts and find the mistakes in

the illustrations (pupils draw illustrations with mistakes)

– Read the text and make a list of items which appear therein

– Give a headline to each section of the

passage– Find the appropriate places in the text to

re-insert some sentences that have been previously taken out of the text

– Predict which of the following words you will find in the text

– Solve the problem– Discuss the missing last paragraph – Discuss feelings about the text– Before reading the text make notes about

what you already know about it – Act out the text– Put the list of events in the correct order• Reading on the Internet By reading texts on the Internet pupils have the advantage of accessing authentic information. Possible websites of interest: – Virtual museums for projects – Geographical information– Song lyrics of favourite music tracks – Films – Timetables– Daily news – Weather reports4.1.C. Reading out loud in class

Reading aloud around the class can be tedious and end up being boring. Here are a few alternatives to make it interesting: – Teacher reads – Teacher reads narrative and pupils read

dialogues – Having read a story, get the pupils to retell

it. – Pupils read to each other in small groups – Pupils read silently and then improve it by

acting out part of the story. – Silently speed-reading chapters. READING Teacher’s Book references:• Intensive: p. 19, 21, 23, 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 40, 49, 51, 52, 62, 64, 68, 69, 70 • Extensive: See list of readers p. 1404.2 WriTiNG 4.2.A. Types of Writing – Doing exercises: Pupils write single words

or short sentences. Focus here is on accuracy.

– Guided writing: Pupils write longer passages following clear guidelines.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips10

– Process writing: With the help and feedback from the teacher and classmates on the various stages of writing, pupils write what they want.

– Unguided writing: After choosing a topic, pupils are freer to write what they want. Focus here is on fluency.

4.2.B. Writing as a process (steps to be followed)

For the development of the writing skill to happen successfully, it is important to go through the right preparatory steps, which could be some or all of the following: – Introduce the topic and writing task – Brainstorm ideas– Write the topic on the board– Ask pupils to tell you everything that

comes to mind on the topic – Write everything on the board – No discussion or comments at this stage – Try fast writing – Just start writing about the topic, even if

it is rubbish. This helps to overcome the block which many people have

– Sort and order ideas– Decide on specific requirements – Focus on useful models – If it’s a letter, give the pupils a model

letter – If it’s a report, maybe show pupils the way

an authentic report is laid out from an Internet site

– Plan the text– Use bits of paper and then organise it in a

logical sequence – Prepare draft – Edit – Prepare final text4.2.C. Examples of Writing tasks – Write a guide book about your own town

or a place you know well– Write about a product you know well4.2.D. There are a number of advantages in

using computers to develop Writing– Multiple copies can be printed – Editing is easily done – Drafts can be sent electronically to other

pupils

WRITING Teacher’s Book references:• Writing exercises: p. 23, 39 • Guided writing: p. 20, 23, 27, 29, 37, 39,

50, 62, 64, 65, 70, 73 • Process writing: p. 21, 35, 60 4.3 lisTeNiNG 4.3.A. Guidelines for Listening in class • Keep the recordings short• Play the recordings a sufficient number of

times• Play little bits of the recording• Give help when pupils are stuck• Make sure the tasks are manageable: don’t

change the tasks during the listening• Grade the task and not the recording.

In theory it is possible to offer authentic listening passages at a beginner level

4.3.B. Different Skills - which also apply to Reading

• Identifying the topic• Predicting the topic• Listening (& Reading) for general

understanding• Listening for gist: Pupils get an overall

impression without worrying about the detail

• Skimming: Pupils find key topics, main ideas, themes and basic structure

• Listening (& Reading) for specific information

• Scanning: Pupils look for individual pieces of information

4.3.C. Possible Listening Tasks• Follow the route on the map• Choose the best answer from the options

given• Match the people to the pictures4.3.D. Sequence of Steps for a Listening lesson • Discuss the general topic• Predict the specific content• Predict the structure: e.g. if it’s a radio talk

show, it will be based on questions and answers.

• Gist listening for overview• More careful listening for detail or complex

meaning• Listening again to pick out specific

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 11

language details 4.3.E. Authentic songs in the classroom • Listen and discuss: Get the pupils to

express their opinions on the lyrics.• Gapped text: Give the pupils the lyrics

with some words blanked out.• Song jumble: Photocopy and cut up the

lyrics. The pupils reorder the text.• Sing along: Useful to practice stress and

rhythm.4.3 F. Authentic language• Listen to many different pronunciatiations.• Listen to the English language as lingua

franca.LISTENING Teacher’s Book references:• Listening for Specific information: p. 19,

21, 27, 28, 36, 38, 49, 51, 52, 58, 60, 63, 68, 71

4.4. speaKiNG 4.4.A. The Role of the Teacher

During a Speaking activity you can play the following roles: • Prompter: It is important for you to

support pupils who may be struggling. See “Scaffolding” below.

• Participant: If you participate in role plays for example, you can add to liveliness and help generate enthusiasm for the activity. However you need to be careful not to dominate the activity. A discreet presence is advised.

• Feedback provider: When should the feedback be given, during the activity or at the end? It may be useful to give it during the activity, if given with tact and appropriacy.

• “Scaffolding”: This refers to the way a competent language speaker can help a less competent language learner by “building” their conversation. Examples:

– Maintaining a high level of interest and understanding: nodding, agreeing, saying “yes” regularly.

– Asking for clarification when something is unclear.

– Discrete echoing, i.e. repetition of the final word or phrase.

– Asking very short “conversation-oiling” questions.

– Making very unobtrusive corrections (structures/ lexis/ pronunciation), where it is necessary for the communicative sense of the conversation.

– Offering a word the speaker may be having trouble in finding.

4.4.B. Communication Activities • Role Plays – Role cards should give information about

each pupil’s role as well as points relevant to the task

– Role cards should be set up in such a way as to get pupils to practice specific grammar points

– To ensure the success of the role-play activity, make sure pupils have fully understood the task, their roles. Don’t forget to give pupils sufficient preparation time.

• Discussions: – Bring a topic to class– Ask open-ended questions – Give pupils time to formulate responses – Feel free to play the devil’s advocate if the

conversation stalls.• Questionnaires: These may be useful to

practise repetitive language patterns. • Group planning: e.g. The class plans a long

weekend trip to the Zagorochoria.• Pyramid Discussion: e.g. What would be

the 3 most useful items to have if you were lost in the jungle? Pupils start discussions and reach a consensus in pairs, then in 4s then in 8s and so on until you reach the whole class.

• Puzzles and Problems: There are many books on the market with puzzles and these are a highly motivating way of getting of pupils to exchange ideas and solve tasks.

SPEAKING Teacher’s Book references:• Pairwork: p. 18, 20, 62, 70 • Role Plays: p. 27, 38, 52, 59 • Discussions: p. 23, 26, 32• Questionnaires: p. 29, 61 • Group Planning: p. 53, 62, 64, 69 • Games: p. 36, 38, 39, 65

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips12

5. Grammar 5.A. What pupils need to do in order to

assimilate new grammar:1. Be exposed: Through reading and

listening activities expose pupils to lots of language.

2. Notice: Provide exercises and texts so pupils can see structures and patterns of language use.

3. Understand the form, meaning and use: Through exercises and charts focus the learners’ attention on form and use of the grammar points.

4. Try things out: Give the pupils the appropriate contexts for them to try out the structures.

5. Remember items: Through revision and recycling, repeatedly return to the grammar items taught.

5.B. Grammar can be presented through Situational Presentation. Steps:

1. Establish Context: This can be done using matchstick drawings

2. Establish meaning of target form: Add other people or objects to present the target form.

3. Introduce and practice target language: Get one pupil to arrive at target structure.

4. Generate more sentences from the context: Get other pupils to generate similar sentences using other prompts on the board.

5. Recording it in notebooks: Pupils record the structure in their notebooks.

5.C. Examples of other ways to present new grammar:

1. Self-directed discovery: Pupils learn on their own.

• Pupils go to a language learning Internet site and learn all about a grammar topic.

• You hand out a list of 20 sentences with the same grammar phenomenon and get pupils to write the rules.

2. Explanation: You tell the learners the grammar phenomenon.

• You tell a story about a weekend. Every time you use the verb in the past simple

you write it on the board. At the end, you write Past Simple above the list of verbs.

• You present the Past Simple in a chart form.

3. Guided discovery: You facilitate the learner to learn by himself• You present a situation then ask pupils to

give you a series of sentences using the same structure.

• You draw timelines on the board. You elicit sentences using verbs in different tenses: ask pupils to correct errors.

5.D. Practice: Controlled Output1. Drill types: a. Substitution: The teacher can vary what

needs to be substituted, thus increasing or decreasing difficulty.

b. Transformation: More difficult than substitution, here the pupil transforms the sentence from one kind into another.

c. True sentences: Pupils give real information, using the target structure.

2. Written exercises: The following are different ways one can do written exercises:a. Individuallyb. In pairsc. In small groupsd. In teams and as a competitione. Make a game out of it, e.g. in Twenty

Questions pupils practice the question form creating questions with Yes/No answers.

5.E. Examples of Grammar Activities 1. Split sentences: Get pupils to match the phrases from two 2 columns.2. Grammar quiz: Ask pupils for Past Simple

and Past Participle of selected irregular verbs. See list in TB.

3. Memory test: To practice Present Continuous, show pupils a picture of people doing different things for 10 seconds and then ask pupils to tell you from memory what was happening.

4. Picture dictation: Pupils draw picture as one pupil describes a scene to them.

5. Growing stories: Start one story and pupils add sentences in turn to build up the story. This can be done on folded pieces of paper, where pupils add

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 13

sentences without knowing what was written before. For some fun, read them out to the class afterwards.

6. Questionnaires: Pupils compile their own questionnaires.GRAMMAR Teacher’s Book references:• Grammar Focus: p. 20, 22, 27, 29, 37, 39, 50, 52, 60, 63, 69, 72

6. VoCaBularY Teaching language is associated with a

specific context. As we use language in order to communicate, our identity of a reflective practitioner urges us to focus on the following factors within a given communicative situation: sender, message and receiver. 6.A. Key points:• It is important that Vocabulary is taught

in its own right and is not always tagged onto Grammar or Skills activities.

• You must continue to practise Vocabulary: The teaching of Vocabulary does not end once meanings have been explained and understood by the pupils. Your responsibility is that of:

– continuing to practise lexical items – introducing new contexts where it might

be taught – adding other words which might be used

in conjunction with that word – training pupils to use monolingual

dictionaries – training pupils to understand the difference

between receptive vocabulary (words which we need to recognize and understand) and productive vocabulary (items which we need to use on a regular basis). At the lower levels this distinction will be less marked.

6.B. Pre-teaching Vocabulary, before Listening or Reading activity

Before doing a Listening or Reading passage, you may want to use some of the following ideas to pre-teach Vocabulary. • Brainstorm words linked into the topic

area• Match the words with the picture• Predict which words may come up in the

passage

• Check the meanings in a dictionary6.C. Vocabulary during Listening or Reading

work • Deal with the item which a pupil may

specifically ask for or not deal with it• Offer help individually rather than to the

whole class• Give brief concise explanations6.D. Vocabulary after Listening or Reading

work • Get pupils to guess the meaning from the

context• List words which belong to a similar group• Give the opposites of words• Find different words which the writer uses

to describe the same things. 6.E. Helpful ways of recording Vocabulary • Lexical item list: this could include

columns with lexical item, pronunciation, translation, grammar, collocations and maybe an image

• Create a mind map grouping words• Create topic webs• What are other points which may be of

interest about a lexical item: – Number of syllables – The semantic space it occupies, e.g.

the differences between difficult, hard, demanding etc.

– Any false friends in Greek – Lexical families, i.e. other words related by

topic e.g. car, tyre, steering wheel etc. – Lexical sets, i.e. other words related by

meaning e.g. car, automobile, vehicle etc. – Any hom*onyms – Prefixes and suffixes the word can takeVOCABULARY Teacher’s Book references:• Vocabulary: p. 22, 24, 40

7. TesTiNG pupils 7.A. We use 3 different types of tests:• Placement: Used to assess the level of

new pupils.• Diagnostic: Used during to identify learner

difficulties, gaps in knowledge etc.• Progress: Used to measure pupils’ progress

in relation to the agreed syllabus.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips14

7.B. Tests should be:• Valid: Tests should test only what they are

supposed to test.• Reliable: A good test gives consistent

results. For example if a group of pupils took the same test after 2 days, the results should be the same.

• Practical: Easy to mark.7.C. There are generally 2 types of questions:• Discrete-item tasks: they test specific

language items, e.g. multiple choice.• Integrative tasks: here a number of items

or skills are tested in the same question, e.g. an extended writing task.

7.D. The following Test Type items could be included when writing your own tests • Fill in the blanks

• Multiple Choice questions• Cloze sentences• Sentence transformations• Sentence re-ordering• Sentence construction• Correcting mistakes7.E. When preparing your own tests:• Assess the test situation: how long

should the test be • Decide what to test: list what to include/

exclude in the test• Balance the elements: decide on how

long you want each section of the test to be and what test type items to include

• Weight the scores: if we want to give equal weighting to the different sections it is essential to balance the marking scheme.

• Test the test on fellow teachers: it is good idea to try the test out on colleagues, to see if it works, before giving out to the pupils.

TESTS references: • PB - Self-Assessment Tests: p. 23, 35, 47,

59, 71, 83• TB - Progress Tests: p. 43, 75

8. porTFolio WorK Portfolio is an alternative type of assessment

and a language passport that can accompany any foreign language learner who is interested

in presenting his/her skills. It is actually a language learning ‘biography’ dossier that can include evidence of the individual learner style(s), level of strategy development, level of language proficiency and collections of individual or group work products. • This should be a collection of work done

by pupils to show their commitment to learning the language, show progress achieved, show strengths.

• Pupils should feel a sense of ownership of their portfolio and be proud of it. It is your responsibility to ensure this takes place.

• Examples of different types of work: – Different mediums (artwork, photos,

videos, computer printouts) – Individual work (written work, artwork)– Group work (projects and other work

related to group learning) – Reflexions by the pupils themselves on

how they see their progress (diaries) – Samples of processes of how they have

achieved their work (drafts) • Portfolio work achieves several different

aims:– Pupils can compare and comment over

time on where they have progressed the most

– Weaknesses can be identified, addressed and remedied

– It gives the teachers a good overview of the pupils’ development

– It gives the parents a summary of their children’s progress

PORTFOLIO Teacher’s Book references:• Portfolio: p. 24, 28, 30, 38, 54, 61

9. proJeCTs • Projects are typically task-oriented rather

than language-oriented. Pupils learn the language through doing something practical.

• Typically projects will involve one of the following tasks:

– Research, Writing, Designing, Preparing, Performing, Making, Visiting.

– In the final stage, pupils may Present, Display, Perform or even Publish their results.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 15

• Examples of Projects are to be found in all units of this course.

PROJECTS Teacher’s Book references:• Projects: p. 24, 28, 31, 41, 53, 65, 73 10. poeTrY 10.A. Why is poetry important in the language

classroom?• It can make us see things in new ways.• It can be fun.• It’s different – it makes for a break from

using the same old sentences about John doing this or that.

10.B. Reading a poem in class. Steps:• Set the scene by giving background

information• Get the pupils to predict what vocabulary

items might be included• Do a picture dictation: describe what

the poem contains and get the pupils to draw the scene

• Give them other background information about the author and period the poem is set in

• Present the poem as if it were a mini story before presenting them with the real thing

• Get pupils to scan poetry anthologies and present a poem that has inspired them

• Pupils may want to memorise poems they really like

10.C. Writing a poem. Examples of activities:• Provide a poem and ask pupils to fill in

the blanks• Instant poetry: Give pupils clear instructions

to write simple sentences about things around them. It’s surprising how poetic young people can be.

• Get pupils to invent metaphors.• Photocopy and give pupils cut up poems

for them to re-order.• Tell them about haiku (Japanese poems

with a maximum of 17 syllables). See if they can write something in haiku.

11. Drama Using drama in the classroom can be a

liberating experience. Pupils feel freer from cultural constraints and are more willing to experiment with language in different contexts. It has been found to be of particular benefit to shyer pupils. The prerequisite is that will mutual trust and respect or it is unlikely the work to be useful.

Examples of Drama activities:• Role-plays: Pupils act out discrete scenes

with the aid of role-play cards.• Simulation: This is a much more complex

role-play involving maybe more characters within one imaginary setting.

• Drama games: By making pupils be funny characters with quirky lifestyles can be lots of fun.

• Guided improvisation: this is where the teacher sets the scene and pupils invent a story and characters, played by themselves. Guided and encouraged by the teacher a story should unfold.

• Acting play scripts: short sketches or plays are acted out in class or on school stage.

• Prepared improvised drama: pupils invent scenes and perform them in class or for the school.

PROJECTS Teacher’s Book references:• Role Plays: see under SPEAKING

12. Cross-CurriCular approaCh

Many of the activities in the Pupil’s Book have a cross-curricular link. The links are stated in the Teacher’s Book under each activity heading.

A cross-curricular approach is necessary for the development of the pupil’s ability to examine issues and problems of everyday life more effectively. This also helps reduce knowledge-centred teaching and the use of school time can be maximised. The teacher’s role is that of mediator in a learning process which becomes for the pupil more self-directed.

The following are suggested teaching strategies in order to achieve the pupils’ holistic development as individuals and

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips16

social beings.1. Exploration and discovery: This mainly

requires the students’ active participation. Pupils explore and acquire knowledge by themselves by learning “how to learn”. Practices that create conditions making “discovery” possible include: observation, comparison, classification, exploration, prediction, discovery of time relations, comparison of events, problem solving, brainstorming etc.

2. Presentations using appropriate teaching aids: This can be done through use of artwork, photos, transparencies, videotapes, models and computer-based representations. Special care needs to be taken in discriminating what is presented through the computer and what through contact with the “real” world.

3. Discussions between the teachers and the pupils or group discussions: Discussions offer pupils opportunities to speculate, evaluate, draw conclusions and express views through the process of dialectic argumentation and debate.

4. Collaborative teaching: Dynamics developed by small groups of pupils working together are an ideal setting for collective data processing. These are particularly useful when undertaking projects which in most cases in this course are cross-curricular.

5. Direct method of teaching – Narration: Here the teacher intervenes directly during teaching, transferring his/her knowledge through speech.

CROSS-CURRICULAR TEACHING Teacher’s Book References:

Unit 1: Computer Studies, Geography; Unit 2: Maths, Geography; Unit 3 & 4: Geography; Unit 5: the Environment; Unit 7: History; Unit 10: History.References• Harmer J. (2005), The Practice of English

Language Teaching, Longman • Scrivener J. (2005), Learning Teaching,

Macmillan • BBC/British Council Teaching English

website, www.teachingenglish.org.uk• Gardner H. (1983), Frames of Mind: The

Theory of Multiple Intelligence, Basic Books • Goleman D. (1995), Emotional Intelligence,

Bantam Books • Tomlinson, C. (1995),. How to differentiate

instruction in mixed-ability classrooms. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

• CEFR - Common European Framework of References for Languages: Learning, teaching, assessment (2001) http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/Framework_EN.pdf μετάφραση στα Ελληνικά του CEFR (2001) http://www.komvos.edu.gr/

• ELP – European Language Portfolio (2001) http://www.coe.int/lang

• Ευρωπαϊκό Κέντρο Σύγχρονων Γλωσσών (ECML) http://www.ecml.at

• Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο http://www.pi-schools.gr (Αναλυτικά Προγράμματα Σπουδών και ΔΕΠΠΣ)

• ΥΠΕΠΘ http://www.ypepth.gr (Κρατικό Πιστοποιητικό Γλωσσομάθειας)

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 17

UNIT 1 iNTerNeT FrieNDs arouND europe

pupil’s BooKpp. 13-24

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Do you likecomputers?

Learning to write an e-mail.

Expressing Likes and Dislikes.

Simple Present Tense in 3rd person

Expressing Likes, Dislikes and Preferences.

Using Present Simple. Touching upon Present Simple with Gerund.

Computerparts.

Introduce computer hardware, e-mailing and the Internet

Geography:Countries, Nationalities and Flags

Other Languages: how to say “Good Morning!”

Schooling in Different Cultures

Geography: Which states comprise Great Britain. Main cities, population, flowers.

4 teaching periods

1) A. Lead – In; B. Speakng; C. Reading;

2) D1& D2. Writing.

E. Listening;

3) Grammar; F. Speaking

& Writing; 4) G. Writing.

Lesson 2 Internet friends

Asking questions to find out about other Nationalities.Describing a typical “Day in Your Life”.

Singular form, also in Question and Negative.

Highlighting different endings in 3rd person Singular.

Nationalities and Countries

4 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B.Listening

& Reading; C. Speaking

& Writing.

2) Grammar; D. Writing;

3) E. Reading & Speaking;

F. Writing;

4) G. Portfolio.Lesson 3TheUnitedKingdom

Finding specific information about the British Isles from a text and filling in a chart

The British Isles, its countries, its flowers.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B. Reading; C. Vocabulary

2) Project

3) Self-Assessment Test

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips18

uNiT 1iNTerNeT FrieNDs arouND europeCover p. 13

• Ask pupils to look at the cover page. Ask them to look at the map in the background. Elicit where the children come from.

• Ask the pupils about the Internet: what they know about it, what they don’t know about it and how people use it. Ask which pupils have computers at home and use the Internet. Check what they know about e-mail.

TapesCripT

Nadine: I’m French and I have lots of Internet friends all over Europe. Do you? Mark: Do you play computer games? Kostas: Do you enjoy learning English? I do.

lessoN 1Do You liKe CompuTers?aims of the lessona. To revise and present vocabulary related

to computers and the educational uses of the Internet.

b. To familiarize pupils with the format of an e-mail.

c. To get pupils acquainted with the culture of the Internet.

d. To present and practice structures that express likes/dislikes/preferences.

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 14 / Time: 3-5 mins→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER

STUDIES.• Talk about computers with the pupils.

You may find that most of them will have a computer and many will be on the Internet.

• Check what vocabulary pupils already know. Check they know what each item does.

- screen: where you view words and images- mouse: it allows you to move around the

computer screen- scanner: it is used to copy a picture or a

document into the computer- printer: it is used to print documents- microphone: you use this to speak to other

people on the Web- speaker: this sends out sound- keyboard: a piece of equipment with keys

to type information into the computer- tower: where the computer processors,

drives and memory are located • Then get them to do the exercise in pairs

and check their work. KeY a. printer, b. tower, c. screen, d. speaker, e. scanner, f. microphone, g. keyboard, h. mouseaCTiViTY BooK:UNIT 1 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 7KeY sentences with a. dancing, b. painting, c reading, d. playing the violin, e. skating, f. fishing.DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY A • p. 64KeY 1. keyboard, 2. screen, 3. mouse, 4. microphone, 5. printerB. SPEAKINGPB page: 15 / Time: 3-5 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER

STUDIES.Give them information about the Internet and its uses. Internet services: 1. Instant access to and transmission of data,

information, images from anywhere, provided one has a computer and is linked to the World Wide Web.

2. Marketing purposes where companies (e.g. Amazon.com) as well as individuals (e.g. through e-Bay) display and sell products online.

3. Access to discussion lists, net conferences and chatting.

4. Voice telephony (e.g. through Skype). 5. Involvement in Net games. For more information, you may want to read about this in the following website: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet • Let them do Activity B in pairs and help

them with unknown words. Check their

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 19

answers. Discuss any issues which may cause misunderstanding.

KeY T, F, T, T, T, TC. READINGPB page: 15 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER

STUDIES.pre-reading stageDraw pupils’ attention to the format and use of an e-mail message. Explain things like the address, where it should be written, the subject and paragraphing. If you have access to a computer which has e-mail, show them a real e-mail. Compare with the writing process of a letter. While-reading stageLet them read the e-mail and complete the information below the text. KeY 1. He answers his e-mails. 2. He and his friends use the Internet to

find information.3. He uses the Internet to talk 4. They use the Internet to play computer

games with his friend.post-reading stage• Ask pupils to present their findings.• You can extend the discussion and talk about

a vast and sparsely-populated country like Australia where children who live on farms in some cases do their schooling through Internet. They send in their assignments to tutors who live many hundreds of miles away using the Internet and they get their feedback the same way.

D1. pre-WRITING PB page: 16 / Time: 8 mins / TB Introduction p. 10

Ask pupils to do activity D1 in pairs. They have to read what’s in the chart and tick what’s true for their partner. Let them work for about 5 minutes on this.D2. LISTENINGPB page: 16 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening

• To prepare pupils for the listening activity, remind them they should only keep notes and there is no need to understand everything which is said. The aim is to find out the information to fill in the chart.

• Then, ask them to predict what kind of information they expect to see written here (names, free times activities etc). “Can you tell me what some typical names of English children are? Bob, Mary, Susan, Tim, etc. What do children like doing? Playing football, drawing, painting, playing with friends.”

While-listening• Play the cassette/ CD once. Pupils listen

and fill in the missing information.• Play the cassette / CD again and let pupils

check answers.TapesCripTSusan: Hello! I’m Susan. Who are you?Tom: I’m Tom. How are you, Susan?Susan: Very well, thank you. And you?Tom: Fine, thanks. Listen! Are you ten, like me?Susan: No, I’m eleven. I’m a student in the fifth class of Primary school.Tom: Oh, I see. I go to the fourth class, I’m younger than you. Susan: Well, then. What do you like doing in your free time activities, Tom?Tom: I like playing football and I also like reading. But my favourite hobby is working on my computer. I’m pretty good at it, you know. I love surfing the Net, too. I find out so many things about so many faraway places.... I also visit museums round the world and make friends through the Net.Susan: Oh, that’s nice. I like computer games myself, but I also like jogging.Tom: What about your favourite hobby, then? You must like something in particular, right?Susan: Yes, absolutely. I love painting and I want to be a painter when I grow up.Tom: Wow, that’s fantastic. You must show me some work of yours one day. Will you?Susan: Of course I will. I’d love to. Anyway, see you later.Tom: OK, see you tomorrow.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips20

post-listeningNow, invite pupils to compare their free time interests with those of the two children in the listening passage. Ask them to report to the class what the similarities and differences are. Differentiated pedagogy (*): Appendix, Exercise A, p. 133.

KeYName Age Likes Favourite PastimeSusan 11 Computers painting jogging Tom 10 Football computers reading

E. WRITING PB page: 16 / Time: 8 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• In small groups, pupils take turns in asking

each other what they enjoy doing. They should find common interests.

• They should create and complete a chart like the one below by adding names and ticking the right box according to their classmates’ answers. This way they can see how many classmates enjoy what things.

enjoy name… name… ………….Draw on the computer Meet with friends Watch sports on TV etc.

• Don’t use the infinitive + gerund terminology yet.

• One spokesperson from each group can report back to the class.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 1 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 8Pupils write sentences. Sample answers p. 125.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 17 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12aims a. to review and consolidate likes and

dislikesb. to teach preferences

• Ask pupils to look at the structures in the Grammar Focus section.

• Draw their attention to a) the structures we use to express likesb) the structures we use to express dislikes

and...c) those structures we use to express

preferences• Point out the use of the infinitive or

gerund with the expressions. Use the following table on the Blackboard

like/ enjoy + …ingdon’t like/ hate + ….ingprefer + noun/ gerund + nounprefer + gerund + noun• Ask them to copy the tables in their

notebooks for future reference. Make sure they indicate which structure corresponds to each function.

interests names1.2.3.

F. SPEAKING & WRITING PB page: 17 / Time: 10-12 mins / TB Introduction p. 10-11Let pupils work in pairs and do the first part of Activity F.• Ask them to read the stages carefully and

help them when needed.• Make the following drawing on the

blackboard and elicit what the members of this club could include in their poster, e.g. activities, photos, drawings, magazine pictures, realia, etc.

DRAMA CLUBIn our club you can:

- Take part in plays- Mime- Sing and dance- etc.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 21

• If students lack time, you can choose to present their posters in the next lesson.

G. WRITINGPB page: 17 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• Ask pupils to focus on the writing task.

They can use ideas they discussed in the previous activities.

lessoN 2iNTerNeT FrieNDsaims of the lessona. To introduce the characters of this book.b. To familiarize pupils with the idea of

“chatting” on the Internet with friends both national or international (Internet friends).

c. To revise vocabulary related to countries and nationalities.

d. To familiarize pupils with the use of the Simple Present tense and its use for referring to permanent actions.

e. To make them write about “A Day in My Life”.

f. To introduce the idea of the English Language Portfolio.

Background knowledge→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER STUDIES.

Introduce the idea of having Net friends. Explain that through the Internet it is possible to use instant messaging. It is quicker than e-mailing friends. You type a short note and you send it to another person’s computer, where it pops up on the screen. So, you can “chat” with a friend if he/ she is online too, even if both of you are using the computer for other tasks. And, of course, you don’t have to check your e-mail inbox for new messages.

Another thing is that in this instant message conversation more that two people can take part, so a group of people can be online exchanging responses at the same time. You can exchange photos and if you have microphones or speakers you can talk, too. Finally, using web cameras you can have a live conversation.

However you must also make pupils aware of the dangers of chatting on the Internet. • They should be very careful about creating

friendships with strangers. • They should never reveal personal details

about themselves, such as names and addresses.

There are many websites on this topic. One is: http://www.youngmedia.org.au/ mediachildren/06_10_internet_benefits.htmA. LEAD-IN PB page: 18 / Time: 2-3 mins• You present some websites that pupils can

visit at school with you, their Computer Science teacher or even at home. Through these sites they can find other pupils around the world and they can establish a network of internet friends. Note: They would definitely need your help with the IKY website (www.iky.gr).

• Brainstorm with pupils and see what they might be interested in finding out from say a friend in the United States or in Australia.

B. LISTENING, READING AND WRITINGPB page: 18 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9, 10Warm up

Through the images and speech bubbles, introduce the characters of the book. pre-reading

Take the pupils through the chart and what their task is. The listening must be done with books closed. While-reading• Play the cassette/ CD once.• Before checking responses ask pupils to

open their books and complete missing information after reading the dialogue.

• Check answers. Tapescript is in PB.post-reading• Ask them to complete the last line of the

box, i.e. the one about themselves.• Check answers and correct structures

– remind them of Grammar Focus items in the previous lesson.

• Finally check knowledge of vocabulary

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips22

items included in the dialogue. VOCABULARY NOTE: “College” as used in France, Britain and the United States:

• In France, the secondary education institutions are called Collèges. These are the equivalent of gymnasia in Greece.

• In Britain a college can be one of the following:

1. A place where students generally over the age of 18 are trained in a particular subject, which does not always lead to a degree, e.g. The Royal College of Music.

2. One of the parts of a particular university: e.g. Trinity College, Cambridge which is part of the University of Cambridge.

3. A private school e.g. Eton College.• In the United States it is a place where

students can earn a first Bachelor’s degree. A university offers both bachelor’s degrees and advanced degrees.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 1 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 7KeY 1d, 2e, 3a, 4c, 5bUNIT 1 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 8KeY Athens, Mark, London, Marseilles, France, 11, 5th, 12, West Wimbledon Primary School, 12, student, 2nd, studying, tests, homework, Kostas.C. COUNTRIES & NATIONALITIES PB page: 19 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 12→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.• Activity c.a, (p. 19). Draw pupils’ attention

to the characters of our book. Ask them to re-read what Mark said in the first two lines of the dialogue and what we can see in the three bubbles.

• Then write the following sentences on the Blackboard.

1. Kostas is from ______ (pupils: Greece)

so he’s _______ (pupils: Greek).2. Mark is from ________ (pupils:

England) so he’s ______ (pupils: English).3. Nadine is from _________ (pupils:

France) so she’s ________ (pupils:

French).• Draw pupils’ attention to the ways that

words to describe nationality are generally formed by using endings like –ish or –ian or –ese etc.

• Point out there are many exceptions. Some common ones are: British, Scottish, Welsh, French, Spanish, Greek, Dutch, Swiss, Danish, and Turkish. For the people United States, the word generally used is American, but it is not used very often as it is not strictly correct as it refers to the continent and not the country.

• Write the words they want on the blackboard so that all pupils can check spelling.

• Let pupils work in pairs and do the Activity for 2-3 mins.

KeY 1. Portuguese, 2. Russian, 3. Dutch, 4. Spanish, 5. German, 6. Swiss, 7. Albanian, 8. Italian, 9. Greek • Activity c.b, (p. 19). Allow 3-5 mins for the

activity. Pupils can use the map at the end of the book.PB, Appendix, p. 163. Bordering countries:

Portugal & Spain, Holland & Germany, Switzerland & Germany, Greece & Albania, Italy & Switzerland.• Activity c.c. (p. 19).Offer your help when

needed.appendix p. 133 act. C: An exercise to give a glimpse of other languages. KeY 1H, 2I, 3C, 4J, 5E, 6A, 7G, 8B, 9F, 10D. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 1 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 8KeY 1. British, Russia • 2. Italy3. German • 4. Austria, Dutch • 5. Albania Bulgaria • 6. French • 7. Danish • 8. Welsh • 9. England •10. American

Grammar FoCusPB page: 20 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 12aim a. To revise Simple Present tense used for

permanent actions.Warm upInvite pupils to look at the Grammar Focus

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 23

section in PB Appendix (p. 20) and identify the structure (i.e. Simple Present)presentation• Ask pupils if the facts presented in Grammar

Focus are temporary or permanent. Elicit from pupils that these are things that happen usually and are permanent.

• Then elicit ways of forming:1. the 3rd person singular in the affirmative

form (present spelling problems)2. the question form (focus attention to

do/ does use)3. the negative form (don’t/ doesn’t use).

• Write examples on the blackboard for pupils to see and check understanding.

• Spelling of 3rd person singular forms: A. Most verbs: add –s to infinitiveB. Verbs ending in consonant + y, change

the y to i and add –es.C. Verbs ending in –s, -z, –ch, -sh, or –x,

add –es to infinitive.D. WRITINGPB page: 20 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• Work on 1st person singular and ask pupils

to fill in the 3 charts. • Ensure they talk about themselves and

write in the first person singular.• Get them to also think of things which other

pupils might do but that they don’t do. Girls might say “I don’t watch football on TV”.

• Invite pupils to report to their classmates.aCTiViTY BooK:UNIT 1 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY D • p. 9KeY1. do you come from; come from2. Does elephant climb trees3. does a doctor do, works, takes care4. do you see, visit5. People in Greece celebrate, I suppose, have, enjoying6. does a postman do, works, deliversE. READING & SPEAKINGPB page: 21 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9, 11→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.Pre-Reading Stage• Ask pupils to guess what an article with

the title “A Day in My Life” could include. “What does this mean? The passage talks about a boy’s day. What do you do each day? What time do you get up? What do you study at school? Do you study Maths, Greek, History? What do you do after school? Do you play in the playground?”

While-reading stageInvite pupils to read the article of this Irish boy and, either highlight, or keep notes on the blackboard for the three topics: times/ school subjects/ activities.Differentiated Pedagogy (*): For an easier version assign only one or two topics to pupils you feel that will not be able to cope with this task.post-reading stage• Elicit responses. Encourage critical thinking

by asking about similarities and differences with their own pupil life. Talk about the picture next to the reading.

• Ask them to find differences in the situation depicted in the photo. “What time does Richard get up and what time do you get up? Do boys & girls in India have computers in their schools? Maybe not, but we don’t know. Do you?”

F. WRITING PB page: 21 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10This is to get pupils to express themselves using the 3rd person singular question form. • Set the scene by eliciting what they know

about India and how poor people are there. Point out India is one of the most advanced countries in terms of software production and despite the fact that people are poor many have access to computers.

• Allow time for pupils to write questions. Check correct use of “does”.

• Check a sample of work done by asking pupils to read out their questions.

aCTiViTY BooK:UNIT 1 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY E • p. 10KeY What’s your name, How old are you, Where do you come from, Where do you live, do you like travelling, What else, Do

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips24

you like sleeping, What else do you dislike doing, What else do you like doing.PORTFOLIOPB page: 21 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 14• Explain what a Portfolio is and talk about

its use. Use information presented in the Introduction of the Teacher’s Book.

• Ask them to use ideas they have already worked on.

• They should draw and colour in pictures.

lessoN 3aims of the lessona. To familiarize pupils with the British Isles

and with some geographical and cultural facts related to the countries therein.

b. To encourage them search for specific information.

c. To consolidate structures taught in this unit.

d. To involve and encourage them to make their own project.

e. To use sources in order to get infor- mation relevant to the successful completion of their selected project.

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 22 / Time: 10 mins→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.pre-reading stage• Encourage pupils to read the text quickly

(skim & scan) and answer the pre-question “Where could one find a text like this?”

• Probable answers: in a geography book, in an encyclopedia, in a guidebook, in the home page of a British tourist organisation etc.

B. READINGPB page: 22 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9While-reading stage• Ensure it is clear to the pupils what they

are looking for: the capitals and the population.

• They are also asked to fill-in details of their own prefecture.

• The Appendix p. 134 contains additional reading on the Symbols of Britain.

C. VOCABULARYPB page: 22 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 13• Still related to the reading, the pupils

are asked to scan the text again and find words related to the 4 lexical areas.

• You may like to say something about the national flowers and check whether Greece has its own national flower.

PROJECTPB page: 22 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 15• Invite pupils to work in groups. Make sure

that pupils form groups of more than 3-4 members and that they are pupils of mixed abilities.

• Explain the process of work. They have two different types of projects which they can find in the Appendix, PROJECT, (p. 134). Each group should choose one topic to work on.

• The pupils should agree on each one’s role in the project (e.g. who is going to be the “secretary” to keep notes, who is going to collect the necessary material or who is going to help with writing the texts). Finally they have to decide on who is going to present it to the class.

• Explain to pupils there will be a deadline for the completion of the project so they might need to meet outside the school as well.

• Offer suggestions for the correct use of sources available in the school (e.g. library facilities, internet connection). Investigate what sources could be found at home.

• Finally, ask the groups to present their work.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 25

UNIT 2 sChool liFe aND The WorlD arouD us

pupil’s BooKpp. 25-36

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Schoollife andfeelings

Expressing feelings.

Describing good and bad habits.

Prepositions to talk about time in the Simple Present Tense.

Vocabulary to talk about schools: premises, teaching department etc.

Words to describe feelings.

Introduce concept of differentcurrencies.

Maths: pie charts to present data in visual format.

Health: Good and bad habits (healthy eating, sports etc).

Geography: Customs from different countries around

3 Teaching Periods

1) A. Lead – In; B1. Reading; B2. Read Again; C. Feelings.

2) D. Listening;Grammar; E. Speaking; Grammar.

3) F1 & F2. Writing;

G. Portfolio.

Lesson 2 Talkingabouthabits, good and bad

Putting together an interview.

Putting together a survey and calculate response per-centages.

Adverbs of frequency.

Highlighting different Endings in 3rd person Singular.

Talking about sport.

3 Teaching Periods

1) A. Lead-In; B.Listening;

C. Reading.

2) D. Writing; E. Vocabulary;

Grammar3) F. Reading;

G. Speaking

Lesson 3Customsaroundthe world

Gathering information and writing about different world customs.

Vocabulary related to customs.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B. Reading

2) Project

3) Self-Assessment Test

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips26

uNiT 2sChool liFe aND The WorlD arouND usCover p. 25Time: 5 mins• Ask pupils to look at the picture of the

English school on p. 25.• Ask: How is our school different / the

same with this school? Did you know most pupils in the UK wear uniforms? What are the pros and cons of wearing uniforms at school?

• Pros: No need to buy a lot of clothes, no competition with the other pupils, no worry about what to wear, easy for the teachers to spot the pupils when visiting places

• Cons: It is said to suppress free expression through fashion choices, brings uniformity etc.

TapesCripTGirl 1: How often do you get excited about your school subjects? Girl 2: I’m excited about our school newspaper! Do you have a school newspaper? Boy: Where do you do your homework? At school or at home?

lessoN 1Do You liKe CompuTers?aims of the lessona. to familiarize pupils with everyday routines

and the use of the Simple Presentb. to discuss pupils’ problems and every day

school lifeA. LEAD-IN PB page: 26 / Time: 10 minsBrainstorm in class the idea of putting together a newspaper or quarterly newsletter in English. • What would be the difficulties?• What should it include? • What would make it interesting for the

pupils?• Who could they circulate the newspaper to?KeY 1c, 2a, 3bB. READINGPB page: 26 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9

pre-reading • With your pupils go over what a newspaper

looks like. Highlight that it is made up of headlines, different articles, adverts, announcements and a variety of other text types.

• Focus on scan reading techniques. Explain to the students that if you are good at scanning, you read a lot faster. In “scan” reading you are reading quickly, focussing only on looking for specific information. Pupils must understand they do not need to know the meaning of every word (and this is difficult for them to appreciate).

While-reading. Individually, pupils do the following tasks: • The pupils need to understand what each

item represents.• Also, what are the key bits of information

each piece of writing gives.

after-readingCheck the pupils were fine about not understanding every word. Go over what the 3 texts represent.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 11Pupils write the sentences using the prompts. Sample p. 125.

C. WRITING PB page: 27 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 101. Ask the pupils to guess which words

might match the children’s feelings. Do not explain the words in the box.

KeY a. angry, b. bored, c. happy, d. sorry, e. excited, f. sad

Whole class follow up: Can the pupils guess why the children might be feeling that way? Ask them to make short sentences orally, e.g. She feels happy because it’s her birthday today.D1. SPEAKINGPB page: 27 / Time: 10 mins / TB

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 27

Introduction p. 11In pairs, pupils check what each area listed is used for.While the pupils are busy with the above, draw a map of the school on the blackboard. Ask the pupils if they can name the different rooms.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 12KeY wakes, have, start, finish, prepare, use, best, broomstick.Pupils write the sentences using the prompts. Sample p. 125.DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY B • p. 68

1. … at 9.00 a.m. 2. … at 2.00 p.m.3. … with Mr Higgins 4. In the afternoon…5. … his broomstick

D2. LISTENING PB page: 27 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10Following on from the previous activity, in pairs pupils need to guess where the children are.TapesCripT1. Teacher: Now open your books at p. 15 and look at exercise B. James! Stop talking please and open your book. 2. Canteen assistant: Hi Matt! What are you having today?Matt: Just a chicken sandwich and some orange juice, please.Canteen assistant: That’s 95p. Matt: Here you areCanteen assistant: Thank you.3. Matt: I’d like to borrow this book, please.Librarian: Yes, of course. Fill out this card and give it to me. You have to bring it back within 15 days. 4. Matt: Come on now. Who wants to play ball and who wants to play hide and seek. Let’s see. Bob you come over here and Fiona you go over there. 5. Teacher: Ok, class, let’s save this file under the name Document 3 into the hard disc… Matt: Excuse me, sir. How do I open this file? I think there’s something wrong with my computer.

Teacher: Well, let me see.6. Teacher: Be careful everyone. Hold the test tube over the fire and see how the colour changes. All right now let’s add some sulphur dioxide and see what happens. Be careful Mary, don’t hold your hand next to the fire. KeY 1. teacher talking in classroom; 2. grown-up and student talking in cafe-

teria or school canteen; 3. grown-up and student talking in school

library; 4. child talking in schoolyard; 5. in the computer lab; 6. teacher talking in chemistry lab.E. ROLE PLAYPB page: 27 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• Read through the Canteen menu.• Say a few words explaining the currency in

Great Britain and how it compares to the euro. The exchange rate given fluctuates.

• Read through and with one pair of pupils, act out the two models.

• Make sure pupils in each pair know exactly what role they are playing.

• In pairs, pupils act out the mini dialogues.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 28 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 12Go over the grammar in the chart and highlight the differences between the uses of the 3 prepositions.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 13KeYColumn 1: on, in, on, at, onColumn 2: in, in, at, in, onColumn 3: in, in, at, on, atF1. WRITINGPB page: 29 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10Review the Halloween Party invitation on p. 26. • Check pupils remember the main

information.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips28

a. The party is on Tuesday, October 31stb. The party starts at 6.00 p.m.c. The party is at the school play ground.F2. WRITING PB page: 29 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-WritingEnsure the pupils do write the questions down. Tell them they may discuss the issues in L1. While-WritingIn pairs, if necessary the pupils can help each other with question forms.post-WritingSee that they learn at least one new and better habit from their partner. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 13Suggested KEY- Hi, I’m Jim!- Do you like this school?- What do you do in the afternoons?- Have you made some friends?- Would you like to come and play football

this afternoon with my friends and me?G. PORTFOLIO PB page: 29 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 14Individually, tell the pupils to combine the answers from the previous activity in a short paragraph and if there is time add a small drawing.PROJECTPB page: 29/ Time: 25 mins / TB Introduction p. 15Make sure you prepare your pupils beforehand for this project. Give them 2-3 days notice and keep reminding them of what they are looking for and what to bring to school. They can choose, as a class, to do either one or the other project. The first is about feelings and the second about the canteen. Get them to work in small groups. If they choose the first one, it is important they practice at expressing their feelings clearly before the presentation.

lessoN 2TalKiNG aBouT haBiTs,GooD aND BaDaims of the lessona. to learn to talk about good and bad habits b. to learn how to express the concept of

frequency using different adverbs. A. LEAD-IN PB page: 30 / Time: 10 mins• To set the scene for the listening to follow,

ask the class the questions given about sports people.

• Also raise questions about leading a fit life. What do the pupils consider healthy living habits?

B. LISTENINGPB page: 30 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening• Do the pupils remember Greece in the

2006 Basketball World Cup. Greece nearly won the gold medal; in fact she won the silver medal. Do the pupils remember who won the final? (Spain won)

• Do the pupils remember the names of key players in the Greece teams of the past? Answer: Nick Galis, Panagiotis Giannakis, and Panagiotis Fasoulas.

While-listeningA basketball player is at a school being interviewed. Do the first listening with books closed. During the second listening, the pupils fill in the blanks. TapesCripTTeacher (T): We are very happy to have such a famous person here today. Guest (G): I am happy to be here!T: How did you become so famous?G: I practice a lot. I (1) sleep well. I (2) eat healthily. And, my family is always behind me.T: How many hours do you (3) practise each day?G: About (4)six hours, plus I train to stay fit.T: Is the (5) food you eat important?G: Yes, it is very important for a (6) basketball player to eat well, like any other professional

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 29

sports person.T: After a very successful career in Greece nearly winning the world cup, you are now living in the States. Do you enjoy life in Houston?G: It’s different but I like it very much. Of course I still (7) play for Greece and I often come to Athens.T: What do you (8) do in the evenings in Houston? G: I (9) watch Greek films!!T: What do you have to recommend to young children who want to play basketball at a professional level?G: You can be successful only if you (10) train very hard and you are passionate about the game. And of course you need to be talented as well.T: Thank you. It was a pleasure having you here.post-listeningElicit answer from the class. The famous person is Vassilis Spanoulis, the basketball player. He has since returned to Greece.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 14KeY geography, history, maths, gym, chemistry, French.C. WRITINGPB page: 31 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10Teacher can do an example orally before the pupils start writing. KeY Good Habits: He sleeps well; He eats healthily; He practises a lot each day; He trains very hard.Bad Habits: NoneaCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 14Free for pupils. Sample p. 125.D. WRITING & SPEAKING PB page: 31 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10, 11pre-WritingBefore the children write their answers, check what sports the children do. Write on blackboard a list of sports. Orally go over what the children should avoid doing before each sport they practise.

While-WritingThe children can add other sports of their own.post-WritingOnce the children have written their answers, go over them and see what the class as a whole can all learn from their answers.E. VOCABULARYPB page: 31 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 13KeY 1. We are happy to have… 2. I’m happy to be here… 3. Do you enjoy life in… 4. What do you recommend …. 5. Thank you. It was a pleasure…

Grammar FoCusPB page: 32 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• Ensure the pupils understand the percentages

between the different adverbs. • Go over the position of these adverbs in

sentences. Give them more examples to teach them about the position of adverbs.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 14Free for students, based on prompts from chart. F. QUESTIONNAIRE PB page: 32 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11pre-readingIntroduce the activity by saying we all live differently and that, leading onto the next activity, it is interesting to do surveys to see how different people do different things. Surveys help us understand trends and if there are negative trends these can then be rectified. While-reading

In pairs, child A acts as the market researcher and child B as himself. Child A reads and ticks off the answers. The roles are then reversed. The answers are then used in the survey to follow.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY D • p. 15

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips30

Free for students, based on prompts.G. WRITING & SPEAKING PB page: 33 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10, 11→ Cross-curricular link: MATHS.Teacher introduces the activity by explaining what a pie chart is: using different colours within the same pie, it helps understand information at a glance. This is linked to what pupils will do in their maths classes.• A key aspect of the pie chart is to be able

to convert the total data into fractions. The pupils need to understand that, for example, if you have 30 pupils, 5 of whom give answer A, 5 answer B and 20 answer C, two thirds of the pie will be one colour and the remaining part will be divided into 2 equal parts, with two more different colours (20+5+5=30).

• To gather all the data, ask the pupils to raise their hands for the replies to each question. Then count and record answers on the blackboard.

• On separate pieces of paper, the pupils then convert the answers for each question into pie charts. To speed things up, teacher should divide class into 2 groups, where one half does 4 questions and the other half the other 4. Make sure they use different colours for the different sections of the pie.

Other examples of charts

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY E • p. 16Free answers. Sample answers p. 125.

H. PORTFOLIO PB page: 33 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 14• Prepare your pupils by asking them to

choose beforehand which question they want to do.

• For the first question, they need to decide which famous person they want to interview. They can look for photos, picture etc. and bring them to school to add to the interview.

• Examples of both Portfolio activities can be stuck on the classroom walls.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY F • p. 16KeY1. It leaves at 10.252. The ticket is 20,10 euros3. There are 5 trains each day4. It takes 6 hours5. It’s 5,50 eurosUNIT 2 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY G • p. 17Pupils use the information to complete the sentences.

lessoN 3CusToms arouND The WorlDaims of the lessona. to revise and consolidate Simple Presentb. to talk about customs and traditions in

England, Greece and around the worldA. LEAD-IN PB page: 34 / Time: 15 mins→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.• Ask pupils to think of some strange habits

that they may know or may have heard of from their parents or grandparents.

• Be open to ideas from pupils who come from more remote areas or other countries where old traditions are still alive.

• Encourage them to talk about these in class even if they use some Greek words to communicate

Presentation. Allow pupils a few minutes to read the text and make sure they have understood by asking questions like:• What do hotel managers do in Japan? What

do people eat in Korea? What do Muslims

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do before they enter a mosque? • What happens in England and the USA

when it is somebody’s birthday? How do they name the third child of a family in America?

Practice. Continue by asking further questions like:• Do people in Greece/Albania/Russia (&

other countries) have any special dishes? • What do you do when you enter a church?

(Light a candle etc.)• Whose names do the children usually take

in your family? B. READING & WRITING PB page: 34 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 9, 10Turn to Appendix p. 135• Ask pupils to look at the chart and focus

their attention on the customs and habits of English people. Are there any similarities/differences? Ask them to talk about them. Do they find anything strange? What is that?

• Encourage the pupils to work in groups and write down about their own manners and habits. Have them present their work in class.

PROJECT PB page: 34 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.To be done in small groups. Make sure the pupils have all the necessary equipment to

create the posters: scissors, glue, cardboard and the realia for the project. Encourage pupils from non-Greek backgrounds to talk about their own national customs. The photo on the right, is of a traditional sport from Scotland called the “Tossing of the Caber”. The man who can throw the bare tree trunk the farthest is the winner. The tree trunk is about 18 ft long and weighs about 115 pounds, that is about 52 kgs. This sport is practised at the Highland Gatherings Games, events in Scotland lasting a few days where different clans come together in the open air and there is dancing, traditional sports, animal shows and lots of eating and drinking. CULTURAL CORNER → Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY & HISTORY.• The curiosity of your students might have

been aroused by the photo of “The Tossing of the Caber” (see above) at a Highland Games show.

• Scotland is a country very rich in ancient traditions which are unique. Ask your students to tell you what they know about the country, its people, its history, its monsters!

• This is a text which tells you a lot about some of the traditions of Scotland. Some of them you may know, hopefully some of them will be new to you!

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SCOTTISH CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS The visitor to Scotland should be aware of the customs of the country as otherwise they

may be confused by the behaviour of the Scots, which may seem odd at times if one is unaware of the traditions and beliefs which lie behind them.

There are a number of important things the visitor should know about including the Clan System, the Highland games, Hogmanay (the most important festival in the Scottish calendar), Burns Night and above all, at least when visiting the highlands, religion in Scotland. This is particularly important when visiting Caithness and Sutherland where religious observance is taken very seriously and great offence can be caused by the careless visitor who does not observe the rules.FEUDS

Feuding (particularly in the highlands) between the clans, and between different religious groups is a long-standing tradition in Scotland and is deeply ingrained in the character of the people. The animosity between the supporters of the two Glasgow football teams (Celtic and Rangers) is a modern manifestation of the Scots’ deep psychological need for a fight.

Some Clans have long standing feuds with other Clans, sometimes for good historical reasons, which have become almost a tradition. The most well known example of this is probably the long-standing hatred of the McDonalds for the Campbells, which dates back to the Massacre of Glencoe. Although centuries have passed and some McDonalds are ostensibly best friends with some Campbells, so deeply rooted is the subconscious mistrust that unaccountable rows will break out between these ‘friends’ for no apparent reason.

Many Scottish Clans have internal feuds and individual family members sometimes have the worst feuds of all. Feuds are so customary and basic to life amongst some Scots (particularly some Highland families) that it is not unknown for a Scot to die from lack of someone to fight with. This is particularly true for certain women who will keep up an almost demented lifetime feud against another person for a perceived slight or wrong that any

CULTURAL CORNER

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other human being would forget. The phrase ‘hell hath no fury like a woman scorned’ undoubtedly originated in Scotland!

THE HIGHLAND GAMESThe Highland games is a curious spectacle consisting mostly of big hairy men in skirts

and vests chucking big logs and swinging iron balls on chains round their heads. These activities are known respectively as tossing the caber and hammer throwing and take place at events called “highland gatherings” - the last remnants of the “gathering of the clans” (a good excuse for fistcuffs, of which many Scots are fond, in the old days).

The other main attraction is the Pipe bands. These are groups of men (in modern times it can be both men and women); each group has matching skirts, fancy jackets and strange little hats. They march around squeezing the air out of big tartan bags (known as bagpipes) and blowing it in again through a pipe attached to the bag. This results in a horrible racket known as “the skirl o’ the pipes” which is almost indistinguishable from the noise made by the haggis during the mating season. These pipe bands often turn out to be Australians, not Scots at all! Seriously though, the pipe bands are not to be missed if you are visiting Scotland. There is, in my humble opinion, no sound in the world more moving than a good solo piper or a good pipe band, many’s the time I’ve been moved to tears.

(Information from selected websites on Scotland)

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UNIT 3 plaCes

pupil’s BooKpp. 37-48

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1The placewe live in

Expressing Opinions and Making Suggestions

I (don’t) think / it seems to me that..... In my opinion...Why don’t you...?How about...?

Adjectives to describe Cities.

Occupations, Places of Work, Methods of Transport.

Phrases to Express opinion & Make Suggestions.

Geography:Teaching StudentsMap Reading

Geography:Cities Around the World.

The Environment and Cities: how to improve it.

4 teaching periods

1) A. Lead–In; B. Reading &

Writing.

2) C. Writing; D. Listening; E. Game.

3) Grammar; F. Writing.

4) G. Portfolio.

Lesson 2 How can Iget to ...?

Directions: Asking for and Giving Directions

Highlighting different endings in 3rd person Singular.

Directions: Left, Right, Straight Ahead.

Nationalities and Countries

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B. Game C. Listening; D. Role-Play.

2) E.Listening; Grammar; F. Game.

3) G. Writing.Lesson 3Talkingabout a town in Greece

Finding information about cities around the world and writing about them.

Towns, Cities, their location, their history.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B. Reading; C. Vocabulary

2) Project

3) Self-Assessment Test

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uNiT 3plaCes Cover p. 37Time: 5 minsCheck pupils understand what the different places shown are.Ask them which places they go to daily, on a regular basis, seldom or never.Ask pupils how they get there. On foot, by car, by bus?Pupils listen to the noises and match to places.

lessoN 1The plaCe We liVe iNaims of the lessona. To make pupils talk about the place where

they live, about their parents’ workplace and ways of getting to work / school

b. To revise vocabulary related to buildings, services and methods of transport

c. To teach how to express opinion and make suggestions

d. To make pupils aware of the problems of living in a city and make them express their opinions on related issues

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 38 / Time: 3 mins• Allow pupils a few minutes to look at the

questions individually. Then elicit responses and have class discussion.

B. READING & WRITINGPB page: 38 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 9, 10→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.Pre-Reading• Ask pupils to identify what the situation

here is and who the participants of this exchange are. The 3 Net friends are talking about the cities where they live and about the way their parents go to work.

• Elicit information about the images: e.g. “What is it that they all have in common?”, They all live in cities. They live in different cities but with similar problems. In cities and towns they can get to work by car, bus, metro, on foot. In villages they may

get to work on foot.• Ask the pupils to read the instructions and

check they have understood them. Check they have understood the chart on the following page.

While-reading• Pupils read the bubbles & complete the chart.• Allow them to check information in pairs.post-readingAsk the pupils if they can identify problems in the ways the 3 children’s parents choose to travel to work. “What are the problems with the way the 3 parents go to work? Kostas’s mother can’t find parking. Nadine’s parents may have a long and tiring bus ride. Mark’s father is the lucky one – he walks to work.”“What other way can Kostas’s mother get to work? She can take the bus or the metro. The metro is fast and efficient. The bus may be slow and hot in the summer months.”aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 18KeY 1. supermarket, 2. watch films 3. post office, 4. play tennis/basketball/etc, to do sports, 5. bookshop, 6. church (or the Town Hall), 7. toy shop, 8. bankDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY A • p. 71KeY 1. supermarket, 2. cinema, 3. post-office, 4. sports centre, 5. bookshop, 6. church, 7. toyshop, 8. bankC. WRITING PB page: 39 / Time: 7-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• In pairs, pupils prepare a small paragraph

like the ones in Act. B (p. 38). They first discuss orally, take notes and then help each other with the writing.

• After the main writing task has been completed, in pairs they can make a statistical chart like the model given below and compare their results with those of the other classmates.

• They could also compare the way they get to school and go to their evening classes – e.g. music lessons, sports, guitar/ piano lessons, foreign language lessons.

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METHODS OF TRANSPORT MEANSBY CAR BY TAXI BY BUS/ KTEL BY TRAIN/METRO BY TRAM BY BOAT ON FOOT/BIKE/MOTORBIKE OTHER

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p.18vet butcher motorbike taxi lakebus farmer singer sports centre cookbank supermarket doctor vegetables lorry driverfoot read mechanic journalist nurse

D. LISTENINGPB page: 39 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 10The aim here is to revise vocabulary from last year’s book related to shops and services.pre-listening• Remind pupils of buildings already met

in last year’s English book. Brainstorm and ask them to name shops and services they have in their area. Help them with vocabulary (e.g. town hall, hotel, office building, theatre, playground, sports centre, toy store, post office, shopping centre, etc).

• You could have some flashcards ready for this purpose made of drawings or magazine pictures. They could show objects or things one could find or do in such places, e.g. photos of toys for the toy shop, pictures of clothes or shoes for the shopping centre, groceries for the supermarket, etc.

While-listening• Ask pupils to identify the shops in the

photos in their books, as well as the three persons.

• Play the tapescript once. • Encourage pupils to work in pairs and

compare findings.• Play the tapescript a second time and have

them check their answers.TapesCripT – Kostas speaking:

“Ok, Ioanna, I think you should get the map, pick up the guidebook from your house and then buy some bread for our sandwiches. Mark and I will buy the ham, tomatoes and the fizzy drinks and then get the bus tickets from the newsstand. I don’t think we’ll take the metro. We’ll get plenty of fizzy drinks as it looks like it’s going to be a hot day. Mark and I will also pick up the ball, Frisbee from home… and we won’t forget the cakes from the cake shop! How about we all meet up here in about 40 minutes and then we’ll set off?” KeY Mark & Kostas - newsstand, home, supermarket, cake shopage Ioanna - bakery, housepost-listeningHave pupils report to the class on which of the characters does what and ask them about what else they could do in such places in their neighbourhood. “What else can you buy in a cake shop? Milk, sometimes bread, mainly freshly made cakes. What else can you find in a bakery besides bread? Milk, cakes, dry biscuits. In a supermarket? Everything.”aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 18KeY 1. Where does Jack come from? He comes from Great Britain.2. Where does he live?

He lives in Cambridge.3. What’s his job/ What does he do for a

living? He’s an actor.4. Where does he work? He works at a

theatre.The rest are free answers.E. GAME PB page: 40 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11This game could be played either in pairs or in groups. It could be played by the whole class split in two groups. Ask pupils to prepare their cards. In each role play card they should write: a) a place to visit, b) the reason why and c) the how to get there.1. Make them read the instructions in the

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Pupil’s Book and check understanding. If necessary use L1 to explain instructions.

2. To make sure pupils have understood, invite one pupil to play with you.

3. Pupils do the activity. 4. Move around and monitor progress. Offer

help when asked for it.5. Ensure they use the L2 in their exchanges.6. Stop them when time is up and ask for

the winners. Congratulate all pupils for the successful completion of the task.

CD-ROM for 6th Grade. Do Activity “Space House” , “Map”, “Places” (BUILDINGS)

Grammar FoCusPB page: 40 / Time: 7-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12aimsa. to express opinionb. to make suggestions• Pupils look at the structures presented in

the Grammar Focus section.• Pupils tell you the ones to express opinion. • Make sure they understand structure of

the -ing form of the verb (gerund) which is used in expressing opinions.

• Do the same for the expressions used to give suggestions.

Write the following tables on the blackboard and ask them to copy it in their notebooks for future reference and revision purposes:

Expressing OpinionsI think that I don’t think that + –ing formIt seems to me thatIn my opinion Making SuggestionsWhy don’t you...? Let’s … + base form of verbHow about … + –ing form

As oral practice, ask pupils to use the expressions in the tables to express opinion or make suggestions giving them some topics to think about; e.g. using public transport instead of private cars, buying a present for a friend, spending an

evening at home.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 191. Why don’t you follow their advice?/ Let’s follow their advice.2. Wait for the traffic lights to change and

look both ways before crossing.3. How about leaving the books at home?

Sample issues p. 125.F. WRITING PB page: 40 / Time: 3-5 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL

STUDIES.• Pupils look at the text on p. 41. • Initiate discussion on the type of

organization WWF is, what type of text this is, what the WWF is asking for. For background information, see box below.

• Brainstorm issues listed in pupil’s book.• In pairs pupils then write their suggestions

and comments on the issues.• Later get them to share their ideas with

other groups. • Then get some pupils to read aloud their

comments and suggestions.WWF GreeceWWF Greece, the conservation organization, was founded in 1990. It is part of the international family of WWF, which comprises of 29 national organizations and works for the protection of our planet in over 100 countries. With about 5,000,000 members worldwide, WWF works at the local level lobbying governments and international organizations for integrated and long-term solutions to the earth’s environmental problems. WWF Greece is actively supported by its 11,000 members. With its headquarters in Athens, it has established local teams in N. Pindos, Dadia, Lake Kerkini, Lake Prespa, Zakynthos island and Kastelorizo island. In addition, it expresses integrated positions on specific environmental issues and addresses these to the political authorities. WWF Greece also organizes awareness campaigns and other educational activities.

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From “Exhibition on the nature and culture of Zagori” booklet.PROJECTPB page: 41 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 15In groups, pupils work on the Portfolio activity. They follow the steps below:1. Choose an issue.2. Discuss possible problems related to

the issue, give opinions and make suggestions.

3. Think of how a poster could illustrate the problem.

4. Pupils assign roles between themselves and start collecting materials.

5. Once completed, they present their poster to the rest of the class and if possible stick it on classroom wall.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY E • p. 20KeY 1. Athletes always get up early in the

morning.2. Never cross the street on a red light.3. How often does your best friend go to

the cinema? 4. What do you like doing in your free

time? 5. I usually walk to school, but when it rains

my father drives me there.

lessoN 2hoW CaN i GeT To ...?aims of the lessona. To teach ways of asking and giving directionsb. To familiarize pupils with the idea of using city mapsc. To teach vocabulary related to directions and locationA. LEAD-IN PB page: 42 / Time: 35 mins• Invite pupils to look at the question.

Elicit “asking for directions”. Point out that we both ask for directions and give directions.

• Remind them of a few structures taught

in “D” Dimotikou. • Make sure that all pupils understand

“right” and “left”. Ask them to raise their left hand, then their right hand, left, right, right, etc. You can extend that type of activity to eyes, touch left/ right ear, etc.

B. GAMEPB page: 42 / Time: 2-3 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: ROAD SAFETY.• Check pupils know Left, Right, Forwards

and Backwards.• Give clear intsructions on how to play

Simon Says, as indicated in Pupil’s Book.C. LISTENINGPB page: 42 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• Discuss with pupils about a city map.

Use the picture in this activity to clarify issues that children at this age might find difficult to tackle, such as knowing where they are on the map, orientation, distances, landmarks.

• Check they know the cardinal points of a compass. Use the compass on the top left to review North / South / East and West.

• Ask them to look at the map on p. 42.• Let them read the instructions of the activity

and help with unknown vocabulary.• Play the tape/ CD twice.TapesCripTMark: How can I get to the Youth Centre?Kostas: Go along Maditou Str., past the police station and straight along into Kordelion Str. When you reach Nigdis Str. turn right and go past the church. Turn left at the 2nd street after the church (that fs Omirou Str.) and at the next corner turn right. That is Megalou Alexandrou Str. The Youth Centre is a bit further along on the left. To repeat: straight along, right, past the church, left and right again. Got that?Mark: Yes, Kostas, thanks a lot.D. ROLE PLAY PB page: 43 / Time: 5-6 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• In pairs, pupils take turns so that they both

ask and give directions.

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• The pupils can choose either 1 or 2. • Invite two pairs to act it out the role play

in front of the class.• As an extension you can ask pupils to give

directions from their classroom to other rooms in the school.

E. LISTENINGPB page: 43 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listeningLet pupils read the instructions and look carefully at the map. Initiate conversation about this area, which is a popular tourist destination in Athens. TapesCripTPierre: Excuse me…Do you think you could tell me the way to a good traditional restaurant in the area?Passer-by: Sure. Go down the Acropolis hill, along Areopagitou Street and turn left in Adrianou Street. Go along this street and you’ll see “ Dionysos’ Tavern” on your left. You can’t miss it!Pierre: Thanks a lot. What about a place where I could buy a flokati carpet? Is there such a place nearby?Passer-by: Well, let me see…Hm, go along Adrianou street until you get to the end of the street and then turn right. Go down this street until you get to Mitropoleos street. You’ll find some very good carpet shops along this street.Pierre: Thank you so much! And …one final question. What about a metro station? Is there one in that area? I need to get back to Nea Ionia.Oh, there’s Monastiraki Station which is at the end of Mitropoleos Street. Just go down Mitropoleos street, past the Cathedral and you’ll find it. It’s three blocks away.Pierre: That’s great. Thank you so much!Passer-by: You’re welcome. Have a nice day!While-listening• Play the tape/CD once.• Play it for a second time so that they check

their answers.• Have them work in pairs. • You can play the tape/CD more times if

you think necessary.post-listeningYou can ask pupils to use the map and ask and answer about other destinations, e.g. Ermou street, Filellinon street, the Syntagma square, etc.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 20Free answers. Sample p. 125.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 44 / Time: 5-8 mins / TB Introduction p. 12Focus pupils’ attention to the various structures they have met in this lesson and the way they are grouped. • Example 1 shows how we can ask for

directions. • Example 2 are ways to direct someone to

go straight ahead. • Examples 3 & 4 are sentences to present

ways of giving directions with left/right.• Example 5 are two structures to present

ways to talk about the location of a building.

Mediation Activity: They could mediate between their mother tongue and the target language and find similar expressions in L1.F. GAMEPB page: 44 / Time: 7-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY.• In pairs, pupils read the instructions carefully

and then turn to the PB Appendix, p. 163-167 for the maps and do Activity E.

• They are many sites which give you information on London. One good site is the following:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/London• Pupils should take turns.• If there is time, pupils can role play the

conversations in front of the class.G. WRITING PB page: 44 / Time: 7-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10• In pairs fill in the information on this note. • Pupils brainstorm and agree on two places

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of interest in their area.• Ensure that they use L2 as much as

possible.• Once the first draft of their writing task is

finished the groups should exchange their pieces of work with others and make any changes and corrections.

• Each group take back their work and they all copy the corrected version in their books.

• At some future point pupils could bring authentic material related to the places they chose indicated as the most interesting for a visitor to see. This material could be photos, leaflets, guidebooks, maps.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 21Sample text: In the morning people get up very early and milk their cow. They drink the milk, the men do farmwork and the children go to school. They have lunch and in the afternoon the women wash their clothes at a well. In the evenings, they light a fire and do the cooking while children do their homework. They have dinner in front of the fireplace and then they go to bed. Sample answers p. 125.

lessoN 3TalKiNG aBouT Α ΤΟWN iN GreeCeaims of the lessona. to read a text about a town in Greeceb. to make pupils understand how a text giving factual information about a town/city is organizedA. LEAD-IN PB page: 45 / Time: 2-3 mins→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY & HISTORY.• heck pupils know north, south, east,

west.• Invite pupils to answer the questions and

present information relevant to their Geography subject as well as to their general knowledge of the world.

• The two leaflets present the Greek city of

Ioannina.• Individually pupils read the text and answer

the questions.• Explain any unknown words.• Ask them where a text like this could be

found - in an encyclopaedia, a guide book about this city, a tourist leaflet, a web page.This text is about the town of Ioannina.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 3 • ACTIVITY A • p. 22KeY 1. the capital of Italy/a city in Italy,2. the capital of the Czech Republic, 3. a city in Russia, 4. a river in Paris 5. the capital of Austria 6. a city in G.B., 7. the capital of Spain 8. a river in Europe, 9. a river in France 10. the capital of Belgium 11. a city in Germany, 12. a river in Poland 13. in Central Europe, 14. a city in France.B. READING PB page: 45 / Time: 5 mins / TB Introduction p. 9Encourage pupils to read the text again, more carefully, and match the topics with the paragraphs.KeY The old and the new parts of the town paragraph 1

Where the town paragraph 2is built

The environment paragraph 3and surroundings of the town Let them know that this is one way that a text like this could be organized in order to be cohesive and have a logical sequence.C. VOCABULARY PB page: 46 / Time: 5-6 mins / TB Introduction p. 13• This activity helps the pupils locate the type

of grammatical elements they will need later for the completion of the Project.

• The use of nouns and adjectives, that

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relate to the description of a city/town, as well as the verbs, are all essential.

• Check their lists or let pupils in pairs check each other’s work.

KeY

Nouns Adjectives Verbs town busy is situated lake high live island cold is built mountains wet there is / are castle beautiful has house(s) fantastic blocks of flats old shops peaceful cars quiet streets modern

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 3 • LESSON 3 • ACTIVITY B • p. 23KeY 1. world, 2. visitors, 3. learn, 4. public, 5. collections, 6. enjoy, 7. eat, 8. visit.

PROJECTPB page: 46 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY &

HISTORY.• Ask pupils to look at the pictures of various

cities around the world that appear on p. 46.

• Ask them to look for information about these cities. In groups can produce a text with information similar to that about the city of Ioannina in the pupil’s book.

• Pupils are to work as follows:1. They form groups of 3–4.2. They decide on the city they would like

to present.3. They appoint a secretary of the group.

That person will keep notes.4. They agree on the roles that each one

takes and their responsibilities; i.e. who will bring information from sources, photos, maps, etc; who will draw; who is going to check grammar & spelling, who will do the writing; who will use their computer skills; who will present the

project and how.5. Allocate time for the presentation of

their works.Resources: Here are some websites where information about other cities can be located.www. wikipedia.com; www. enchantedlearning.com• Turn to the Appendix, p. 137, Activity A for

further reading practice on other European cities.

KeY 1. Venice, 2. Frankfurt, 3. Frankfurt, 4. Frankfurt, 5. Venice.

SOME INFORMATION ON KASTORIA Kastoria is one of the most important

cities of West Macedonia, with a long history which cannot fade with the passing of time.

Proof of this, are the rich prehistorical and archaeological finds (signs of habitations near the lake at Dispilio, Armenohori etc.). It was named after the mythological Macedonian hero Kastoria, Jupiter’s son.

Geographically the area has connections with the ancient Macedonian state of ‘Orestias’ where the ancient Orestes used to live, having Argos Orestikon, as their capital.

From this area the Macedonian kings started to join the rest of the small states, which constituted the big Macedonian state having as its capital Eges (Vergina) and later Pella.

Initially, Philippos and later Alexander the Great joined this state with the rest of the Greeks.

In Roman period Kastoria shared the same destiny as the rest of Macedonian, however, it gained glory in the Byzantine years.

This is the city of the Byzantine ‘Titoularios’, the city of the Byzantine architecture.

It developed and flourished to become an excellent religious, commercial, artistic and military centre.

According to the famous Belgian specialist in Byzantine art Gregoire: the city can write the History of the Byzantine art itself.

The castles which were built by Justinianos and Vassilios Voulgaroctonos are examples of the interest which the Byzantine Emperors

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips42

showed because of Kastoria’s strategic position.

In the past Byzantine years, Kastoria had many benefactors and teachers of Greek Culture, who were really outstanding.

It took an active part in the preparations for the Revolution of 1821 where it participated with a special group of fighters. In the 19th century it took part in Revolutionary movements in order to defeat the Turkish tyranny.

Kastoria played an important role in the Macedonian fight against the Turks and Bulgarians. In 1912, it was joined with freed Greece. The 75 Byzantine and others churches are samples of the higher civilization and sociability of the city.

One can see the architectural style of the

‘Basilica’ in the churches of Saint Stefanos, Saints Anargyri, Saints Taxiarches, and of the ‘Monocl*tes’ in Saint Nicola Kasnitzi church, the Holy Virgin of Mariotissa Monastery and the Holy Virgin (Panagia) Koumbelidiki. All of them are perfectly built with an excellent structure using local materials, in a rich alternation of shapes and colours which emerge from the same material and the good taste of the maker. The outer walls are varied with perfect ceramics. The inner wall paintings have great expressive strength, expressing the metaphysics of Christianity and the Greek-Christian spirit.

This text (extract) is cited from the Municipality of Kastoria tourist pamphlet.

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 43

proGress TesT 1 (units 1-3)

Vocabulary1. Word Categories: Put the words in the box in the correct column.

Geographical nouns Adjectives Means of Transport

Points: ....... / 15

Vocabulary2. Countries and Nationalities:Look at the flags and the countries. Then complete the nationalities.

1. 1. ___________________

2. 2. ___________________ 3. 3. ___________________

4. 4. ___________________

5. 5. ___________________

Points: ....... / 10

lake

quiet

on foot

mountain

fantastic

by boat

wet

by bike

river

busy

hill

island

by plane

by bus

peaceful

Spain

Britain

Russia

Greece

USA

Photocopiable

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips44

Vocabulary3. Feelings: Match the people and the way they feel.

1. sad2. happy3. bored4. angry5. sorry

1. …… 2. …… 3. …… 4. …… 5. ……

Points: ....... / 5

structures4. Simple Present: Complete the text about David. Fill in the missing words from the list below.

Put the words in the correct form. The pictures will help you.

List of Words: finish studying, be, go riding, love (x2), feel, not/have, ride, like, look

This is Rachel. She’s 12 years old and she ................................. riding. She

........................every day when she ............................... her ............................. . She

............................. her own pet ............................... but together with her brother

Bill, they ..................after Sunshine, a beautiful young horse.

Rachel says. “It’s a big responsibility. I ............................... here every day but I ............

............................. Sunshine and my brother ........................................................ her,

too. When I ....................................... her in the countryside, I .............................

...... free.

Points: ....... / 20

ab

cd

e

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 45

100%

80%70%

50%

20%

0%

do/

homework/

well

wash the

dishes/ at

home

eat/ big

breakfast

be late/ for

school

go to bed/

late

watch/

news/ Tv

Look at the chart and write the results of the school survey. e.g. The pupils in my class always do their homework well.

1) They the dishes at home.2) a big breakfast.3) late for school.4) to bed late5) the news on TV.

Points: ....... /10

structures6. Categories – Time Words:Look at these “Time words”. Put the words in the box in the correct column with the appropri-ate preposition.

aT oN iN

Points: ....... / 20

25th March

Easter

May

the morning

1998weekdays

noon

May Day

December two o’clock

Thursday

SpringJanuary 1st

Christmas Eve

night

summerthe 21st century

Christmas

4:45

the weekend

structures5. Adverbs of frequency. A school survey: Good and bad habits

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips46

structures7. Expressions: Choose the correct option.1. I don’t really like letters.

a. writing b. write c. to writes2. Do people enjoy do you think?

a. cooking b. to cook c. cook3. John prefers History to Geography.

a. to study b. study c. studying4. Why don’t pupils their bikes to school?

a. riding b. ride c. drive5. Mum doesn’t think that her mobile phone is a good habit. I agree with

her.a. to use b. use c. using

6. Let’s all our school clean!a. keeping b. keep c. to keep

7. It seems to me that part in the school play is great fun.a. taking b. to take c. takePoints: ....... / 14

8. Directions: This is the plan of Maroussi, the center of the Athens Olympic Games 2004. Follow the directions and write down the names of the places you will end up. You start from the Schools (ΣΧΟΛΕΙΑ).

1. Go along Vasilisis Sofias street and take the second turning on your right, And, again, take the second turn-ing on your right. You’ll see the (space) on your right.

a. A. Gardelis Galeryb. Spyros Louis Gym c. Kastalias Square2. Walk along Vasilisis Sofias

street and go straight ahead. When you get to Kastalias Square turn left. The (space) is on your right. There will be people waiting for you there.

a. Iroon Square b. I.K.A. Offices c. The Spathari Museum

(shadow puppet museum)3. Go down Vasilisis Sofias street and go straight ahead. Take the fourth turning on the

right. Go along Ermou street until you get Gardeli Square. The entrance to the (space) is on your left.a. ΗΣΑΠ metro station b. Diana cinema c. the Post officePoints: ....... / 6

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 47

KeY To proGress TesT 1Vocabulary1. Word Categories

Geographical nouns Adjectives Means of Transportlake quiet on footmountain fantastic by boatriver wet by bikehill busy by planeisland peaceful by bus

15 x 1 = 15 pts

2. Countries and Nationalities5. Spain – Spanish 4. Greece – Greek2. Great Britain – British 5. The USA – American3. Russia – Russian5 x 2 = 10 pts

3. Feelings1. – e, 2. – c, 3. – a, 4. – d, 5. - b5 x 1 = 5 pts

4. Simple Present1. likes, 2. goes riding, 3. finishes studying, 4. doesn’t have, 5. look, 6. am, 7. love, 8. loves, 9.

ride, 10. feel10 x 2 = 20 pts

5. Adverbs of frequency1. They usually wash 4. They rarely go to bed2. They often eat 5. They never watch3. They are sometimes late

5 x 2 = 10 pts

6. Categories – Time Words:at on in Easter 25th March Maytwo o’ clock weekdays the morningnoon Thursday 1998night May Day Decemberthe weekend January 1st SpringChristmas Christmas Eve the 21st century4:45 the Summer

20 x 1 = 20 pts

7. Expressions:1. a, 2. a, 3. c, 4. b, 5. c, 6. b, 7. a7 x 2 = 14 pts

8. Directions:1. – b, 2. – c, 3. – a3 x 2 = 6 pts

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips48

UNIT 4 ChrisTmas eVerYWhere

pupil’s BooKpp. 49-60

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Getting Ready for Christmas

Being able to express the distinction between something happening now or around now vs. usually.

Distinction between present Simple and Present Progressive.

Christmas decorations.Adverbs of time.

Links to different cultures and how they celebrate Christmas.

Awareness that children in poorer countries might celebrate Christmas differently.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead – In; B. Listening.

2) C. Reading Comprehension Grammar

3) D. Speaking; E. Writing.

Lesson 2 Kostasis in New York for Christmas

Expressing “feelings”.Being able to understand and follow the instru-ctions of recipes.

Verbs expressing feelings usually take Present Simple.

Vocabulary related to cooking special Christmas foods.Vocabulary to express feelings.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B.Listening; C. Reading Comprehension.

2) Grammar Focus; D. Listening; E. Role-Play

3) F. Christmas around the World;

G. Listening; H. Making

Lesson 3A Christmas Song

Sing an English Christmas song.

Songs which may present more complex vocabulary.

4 teaching periods

1) A. song

2) Project

3) B. Portfolio

4) Self-Assessment Test

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uNiT 4ChrisTmas eVerYWhere Cover p. p. 49Time: 5 mins

Ask pupils how they celebrate Christmas.• Will any pupils travel for Christmas?• What are the aspects of Christmas the

pupils don’t like?• What do they know about Christmas in

other countries?TapesCripTGirl 1: I like going skiing! What do you do during your Christmas holidays? (German)Boy: I enjoy spending Christmas with my family. (Russian)Girl 2: Christmas is fun at the beach. What do you think? (Australian)

lessoN 1GeTTiNG reaDY For ChrisTmasaims of the lessona. to contrast the Simple Present with the

Present Progressiveb. to present Christmas vocabularyA. LEAD-IN PB page: 50 / Time: 10 minsDo/How many children put up Christmas decorations? If so, what decorations?• What do they think about Christmas trees:

plastic or real ones? What are the issues with using real ones?

• Do any of them put lights on their balconies?• See if the pupils can guess the answers. KeY 1c, 2d, 3a, 4b.B. LISTENINGPB page: 50 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening• Set the scene by explaining that Susan, an

English friend of Nadine’s, is in Marseilles, staying with Nadine for Christmas. One can fly to Marseilles or from England take the train via the Channel Tunnel. The trip from London only takes about 6 hours.

• Tell the pupils Nadine and her brother are in the living room. Ask the pupils to predict what they might be doing?

• Introduce the distinction between things which happen regularly and things which are happening now.

TapesCripTSusan: Good morning, Nadine! Wow, it’s late. I was from yesterday’s train trip from London. What are you doing?Nadine: Oh, hi, Susan. I’m making Christmas decorations and my little brother is helping me.Susan: You’re making Christmas decorations! How come?Nadine: Well, we usually buy them at the stores but this year we are making them ourselves. Come and see… I’m using my mother’s biscuit moulds and some clay. After they dry, we spray them with gold, silver and green colour and …voila! Some of them are ready. Look at the different shapes: angels, bells, trees, balls, stars… Others are already hanging on the Christmas tree. Don’t they look great!Susan: Wow! Yes, they do! It’s a very good idea! We usually buy them at the supermarket but they are so expensive! And it is certainly less fun like making them on your own. Can I help you make some more? Nadine: Sure, join in!While-listening. The pupils need to listen for specific information on what is happening about the decorations this year versus generally.post-listeningGet the pupils to deduce the grammar forms from the verbs in the listening passage. Reiterate the differences between Present Simple and Present Progressive.aCTiViTY BooK:UNIT 4 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 24Pupils make sentences with the prompts given. Sample answers p. 126.C. READINGPB page: 51 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: SCIENCE.pre-reading• Introduce the idea of people with Special

Needs. Another word is “handicapped”

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips50

but that is used less as it has more negative connotations.

• Of Cross-Curricular interest: See if the pupils have heard of the therapeutic powers which animals have on people with special needs. Have they heard of Pet Therapy? You may want to check out the following website:

http://www.holisticonline.com/stress/stress_pet-therapy.htm• What do the children know about dolphins?

Elicit information. “What do you know about dolphins? Where do they live? Are they friendly? Are they intelligent? How do they speak to each other?”

• Ask the children to predict what the passage might be about.

While-readingThe pupils jot down items in the two columns.post-reading• What do the pupils think about this? What

does this type of therapy do short term? Does it have any long-term benefits?

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 24Pupils write their own letter. Sample answers p. 126.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 52 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12Explain the structure of the Present Progressive: the verb to be (as it’s the present, am/are/is)+ the -ing form of the main verb. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 25KeY1. During this time Susan usually decorates

the Christmas tree but now she is swimming in the sea.

2. Mother usually sets the table but this year she is sunbathing.

3. Gather usually carves the turkey but today he’s fishing.

4. Felix writes Christmas cards but this year he’s making sand castles.

D. SPEAKING PB page: 52 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 9pre-speaking• Have the children heard about Trafalgar

Square in London? One or two may have been there. The tree which is in Trafalgar Square is traditionally a gift from the Queen of Norway to the City of London. Trafalgar Square is where people gather on certain evenings during the Christmas period to listen to Christmas carols. Regent Street is nearby and it has the best Christmas lights in Britain.

• Introduce some of the vocabulary the pupils could be using to describe what Nadine and her family are doing in London.

While-speakingMake sure the pupils are using the correct verbs to distinguish between what happens during the year and what is happening now. “During the year Nadine usually watches TV at the weekends. Now she’s in London, buying presents with her family. OR Nadine enjoys sowing at weekends but now she’s in London visiting interesting places”.post-speakingIn pairs, you could follow up by getting the pupils in pairs to ask each other if they are doing anything special this Christmas. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 25KeY First card: b, d; Second card: a, cE. WRITING PB page: 53 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10Pre-Writing• Do any of the pupils write postcards when

they go on holiday? • Who do they write them to?• Ask the pupils what makes writing a postcard

different from other forms of writing. The short amount of space limits how much one can say. The messages have to be concise.

While-WritingCheck the pupils are putting meaningful sentences onto the card, and keeping them concise.

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post-Writing• Read some of the cards out – some of

them could be funny!aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY E • p. 26KeY He gets the sledge readyHe’s putting on his robeHe feeds the reindeer He’s having lunch with the elvesHe checks his list He’s watching TVHe helps the elves pack the toys He’s riding his favourite reindeerHe’s having breakfast with Mrs. SantaHe’s reading a newspaper

lessoN 2KosTas iN NeW YorK For ChrisTmasaims of the lessona. to learn vocabulary related to foods. b. to learn to use the senses verbs: taste,

smell, feel, look. A. LEAD-IN PB page: 54 / Time: 10 mins• Can the pupils name some traditional

Christmas dishes in Britain and the States? • What about traditional Christmas dishes

in Greece or other Balkan countries?B. LISTENING PB page: 54 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ARTS & CRAFTS.Pre-Listening• Have any of the pupils eaten pancakes?

Have they eaten crepes? Well, they are similar but pancakes are thicker and served with syrup.

• Teacher can photocopy the page and provide the pupils in pairs with cutout cards for the different parts of the dialogue.

While-listeningIn pairs, pupils order the artwork by numbering them one to six. KeY The numbers on the photos, clockwise from top left, should be: 3, 6, 4, 5, 1, 2.

TapesCripTMary: Let’s make some pancakes for breakfast!John: Great idea! I love pancakes and they’re easy to make!!Kostas: Yum, yum! Me, too!J: Here’s Mum’s cookery book.K: They look great in the photo.M: I hope they taste as good as they look when we make them!Mum: Merry Christmas everyone! Mm, it smells delicious in here. What a great surprise, children!!M: Pass me the syrup, please, Dad.Dad: Merry Christmas everyone! Oh, Look at Kostas!K: Yummy! Yummy! We need eggs, butter, flour and milkJ: I’ve got the flourM: I’ve got the eggs, the butter and the milk. I’m mixing the batter. It’s looking good!J: The pan is hot. Let’s pour some batter in.M: Well, is the first pancake ready yet? I’m starving.M: It’s just turning golden. K: It smells fantastic! I’ll set the table.post-listening• What are the main ingredients to make

pancakes: flour, eggs, milk, butter.• Batter is a liquid mixture with milk, eggs

and flour used for cooking, e.g. for pancakes or for frying fish.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 27Sample anwers p. 126.C. READINGPB p.: 55 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9Model answers:— They are seeing beautiful photos of

pancakes.— The pancakes smell good.— The pancake taste great! Differentiated pedagogy (**): Give them a photocopy of the following ingredients and ask them to list the steps required to make pancakes.

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iNGreDieNTs:– 1 cup all-purpose flour – 2 tablespoons sugar – 2 teaspoons baking powder – ½ teaspoon salt – 1 large egg, slightly beaten – milk, just enough to make pourable batter The process is as follows:Combine dry ingredients. Stir in egg, and enough milk for batter to pour easily. Mix lightly to blend. Cook pancakes on a hot, well-greased griddle. This recipe for pancakes makes 2 to 3 servings. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY Β • p. 27KeY1. Delicious, 2. Happy, 3. Cookery, 4. Fantastic, 5. Tastes, 6. Batter, 7. smell, 8. pancakes, 9. starvingDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY B • p. 74KeY 1. nice, 2. happy, 3. cookery, 4. fantastic, 5. tastes, 6. batter, 7. smell, 8. pancakes, 9. hungry

Grammar FoCusPB page: 55 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• This is a review of the present simple with

a list of adjectives that go well with the verbs which describe the senses.

• Make clear to the pupils: when we use these verbs to indicate how something tastes, smells or feels, we don’t use the progressive form. We don’t say, “This cake is tasting fantastic!” but “tastes fantastic”.

D. LISTENING PB page: 56 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listeningImagine the 2 boys are browsing through a general magazine which advertises many different things, incl. cars, videos, foods, etc. While-listening• Pupils listen to the text twice. The first time

the pupils just listen. Remind the pupils the boys will be focussing on three items: food, videos and cars. Tell the pupils to focus on

the boys’ views on each of these areas. • During the second listening, pupils must

write down only each boy’s initials. TapesCripTKostas: Look at this car. It’s the new Golf GTI. A great car! I’d like to get that when I grow up. It looks so fast.John: What about the Audi – that’s a fast car as well. I like that - it looks cool.Kostas: That’s too much a family car – I like it less than the GTI. Look at this pizza. Aren’t you hungry?John: We had pizza last night. Anyway it didn’t taste very good – do you remember? What about a hamburger instead. Are you ok with that?Kostas: Ok fine. What about getting a video to watch while we eat our hamburgers? This looks good! It’s the latest Harry Potter. Can we get that? John: Ok, I’ll call dad and tell him to stop by the video store and pick it up on his way home!post-listeningIn pairs, pupils check each other’s answers with their partners.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 28KeY Santa, bike, computer, clothes, grandma, glasses, dog, bones, dress, gifts / presents.E. ROLE PLAY PB page: 56 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• Set the scene by reminding children that

Kostas is in New York staying with his cousin John. Imagine they are in a big department store where there are lots of items which could be given as a present.

• Use role-play cards PB, Appendix, p. 138.• In pairs, pupils act out the dialogues using

the models and prompts given. They can add their own suggestions for prompts.

F. CHRISTMAS AROUND THE WORLDPB page: 56 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORY.KeY 1c, 2b, 3e, 4a, 5d.

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G. LISTENINGPB page: 57 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening Does everyone know what kourambiedes are? Who makes them in their families? How easy are they to make? Does anyone know the ingredients? Go over the ingredients and pre-teach the vocabulary using drawings on the blackboard. While-listening No writing during the first listening. During the second listening pupils can share understanding and data with their partners.TapesCripT (with answers in bold)Kostas: Ok, put the 2 cups of butter and the 1 cup of sugar in the mixer and leave them for sometime until they are fully blended.John’s mother: Shall I add the 3 egg yolks one by one now?Kostas: Yes but don’t rush. Remind me how much flour is needed?John’s mother: Let me see… Oh, it’s six cups.Kostas: You can put it in little by little.John’s mother: What about the chopped almonds. Shall I add them now, too?Kostas: Yes, and don’t forget 2 spoons of vanilla extract.(after a while)Kostas: Well, the dough seems all right. We have to shape it into balls.John’s mother: Oh, that will be fun. Can I help out on that as well?. Kostas: Yes. Then put them on this baking tray. Could you please turn on the oven? (One hour later)John’s mother: They’re ready. Now what?Kostas: Open the bag of icing sugar and pour it here. Roll them in the icing sugar and put them on this platter.John’s mother: They look great and they smell delicious. Shall we try one?Kostas: That’s a good job done together!post-listeningIn pairs, pupils check answers with each other.H. LET’S MAKE KOULOURIAPB page: 57 / Time: 30 mins / TB

Introduction p. 11• If possible try and make these at school. If

not, still go over the recipe. The children to go over the recipe with their mother’s and make the koulouria at home.

• The teacher needs to be very clear on who brings what to schools – and make sure the children bring what they said they would bring!

• Pupils work in small groups. When making the koulouria, it is fine for the children will use L1. When checking ingredients and taking pupils through the process, the teacher can move into L2.

• Have fun!aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 4 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY D • p. 29

Mediation activity Butter: 250 gr Sugar: Two teacupsEggs: 6Milk: One cupFlour: Half kiloCognac: One glassBaking Powder: 1 teaspoonOther: Cinnamon, Vanilla extract, Orange peel

lessoN 3a ChrisTmas soNGaims of the lessona. to introduce children to Christmas

carols.b. to talk about under-privileged people,

who will have less at ChristmasA. LET’S SING A SONG PB page: 58 / Time: 15 mins→ Cross-curricular link: MUSIC.• The tune is very catchy and most of you

should know it.• Be open to the pupils asking about one or

two unknown words.PROJECTPB page: 58 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 15• Christmas Traditions: www.wikipedia.com

is always a very good website to find

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information like this and they have an extensive site with a very rich list of links.

• In small groups, ask the pupils to put all their work on cardboard and present it to the class.

• Do they know it’s Christmas: Set the scene by thinking about countries like some in Africa where people have very little in the way of food, clothing and medicine.

• Get the pupils to work in small groups. To help, try and get the pupils to think of something practical. By giving a small amount of money one can help a huge amount overseas. Are there relief agencies that are guaranteed to invest the money wisely? Think about UNICEF.

• There are charities in Athens and Thessaloniki which distribute food and clothing to refugees within these cities. Do the children know about them?

• One example is on the following website: http://www.caritas.gr/activities.html

B. PORTFOLIOPB page: 58 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 14Pupils work in small groups. There has to be extensive research for the right photos.

If they find photos on Internet, can they be printed out in colour (black and white will be unattractive). PB Appendix: p. 139 Extra Activity:“A Letter to Santa”• A poem which spares a thought for the

under-privileged (see above: 2nd project).• Each pupil might like to learn off by heart

two lines - the whole class can then recite the poem!

CULTURAL CORNER New Year Traditions (following page)→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORY.Because the Festive season also includes New Year, the following is a passage that describes the history of New Year and traditions associated with this festivity. You may want to ask the pupils whether they have any other traditions which they know about and which are not mentioned in the passage.Recommended film see p. 56.→ Cross-curricular link: ARTSThe text describes a film “The Polar Express” recommended for children during the Christmas period. You will find most video shops have this film.

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NeW Year TraDiTioNsHappy New Year!” That greeting will be said and heard for at least the first couple of weeks,

as a new year gets under way. But the day celebrated as New Year’s Day was not always January 1st. 1. ANCIENT NEW YEARS

The celebration of the New Year is the oldest of all holidays. It was first observed in ancient Babylon about 4000 years ago. In the years around 2000 BC, the Babylonian New Year began with the first New Moon (actually the first visible crescent) after the Vernal Equinox (first day of spring).

The beginning of spring is a logical time to start a new year. After all, it is the season of rebirth, of planting new crops, and of blossoming. January 1st, on the other hand, has no astronomical nor agricultural significance. It is purely arbitrary.

The Babylonian New Year celebration lasted for eleven days. Each day had its own particular mode of celebration, but it is safe to say that modern New Year’s Eve festivities pale in comparison.

The Romans continued to observe the New Year in late March, but their calendar was continually tampered with by various emperors so that the calendar soon came out of synchronization with the sun.

In order to set the calendar right, the Roman senate, in 153 BC, declared January 1st to be the beginning of the new year. But tampering continued until Julius Caesar, in 46 BC, established what has come to be known as the Julian calendar. It again established January 1 as the new year. But in order to synchronize the calendar with the sun, Caesar had to let the previous year drag on for 445 days.

3. NEW YEAR TRADITIONSOther traditions of the season include the making of New Year’s resolutions. That tradition

also dates back to the early Babylonians. Popular modern resolutions might include the promise to lose weight or quit smoking. The early Babylonian’s most popular resolution was to return borrowed farm equipment.

The tradition of using a baby to signify the new year was begun in Greece around 600 BC. It was their tradition at that time to celebrate their god of wine, Dionysus, by parading a baby in a basket, representing the annual rebirth of that god as the spirit of fertility. Early Egyptians also used a baby as a symbol of rebirth.

Although the early Christians denounced the practice as pagan, the popularity of the baby as a symbol of rebirth forced the Church to re-evaluate its position. The Church finally allowed its members to celebrate the new year with a baby, which was to symbolize the birth of the baby Jesus. 4. FOR LUCK IN THE NEW YEAR

Traditionally, it was thought that one could affect the luck they would have throughout the coming year by what they did or ate on the first day of the year. For that reason, it has become common for folks to celebrate the first few minutes of a brand new year in the company of family and friends. Parties often last into the middle of the night after the ringing in of a new year.

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It was once believed that the first visitor on New Year’s Day would bring either good luck or bad luck the rest of the year. It was particularly lucky if that visitor happened to be a tall dark-haired man. Traditional New Year foods are also thought to bring luck.

Many cultures believe that anything in the shape of a ring is good luck, because it symbolizes “coming full circle,” completing a year’s cycle. For that reason, the Dutch believe that eating donuts on New Year’s Day will bring good fortune.

Other parts of the world celebrate the new year by consuming black-eyed peas or lentils. These legumes are typically accompanied by either hog jowls or ham. Black-eyed peas and other legumes have been considered good luck in many cultures. The hog, and thus its meat, is considered lucky because it symbolizes prosperity. Cablackboardage is another “good luck” vegetable that is consumed on New Year’s Day by many. Cablackboardage leaves are also considered a sign of prosperity, being representative of paper currency. In some regions, rice is a lucky food that is eaten on New Year’s Day. 5. AULD LANG SYNE

The song, “Auld Lang Syne,” playing in the background, is sung at the stroke of midnight in almost every English-speaking country in the world to bring in the new year. At least partially written by Robert Burns in the 1700’s, it was first published in 1796 after Burns’ death (see references to Robert Burns in the Cultural Corner of TB Unit 2) . Early variations of the song were sung prior to 1700 and inspired Burns to produce the modern rendition. An old Scotch tune, “Auld Lang Syne” literally means “old long ago,” or simply, “the good old days”.

From: www.wilstar.comRECOMMENDED FILM

Whether you and your pupils believe or not in Father Christmas, you should all see the following film, which came out in 2004. It is warm, moving and great fun to watch. It makes children wonder about Father Christmas and it makes all adults relive their childhood Christmas days.The polar express

The Plot: Santa Claus does not exist. Or does he? For one doubting boy (voice of Daryl Sabara and Tom Hanks), an astonishing event occurs. Late on Christmas Eve night, he lies in bed hoping to hear the sound of reindeer bells from Santa’s sleigh. When to his surprise, a steam engine’s roar and whistle can be heard outside his window. The conductor (voice of Tom Hanks) invites him on board to take an extraordinary journey to the North Pole with many other pyjama-clad children. There, he receives an extraordinary gift only those who still believe in Santa can experience.

From: www.IMDB.comA Viewer Comment: “The Polar Express delivered me all the way back to childhood and my

own faith in Santa Claus at the age of five. I could not only hear the bells, I could see his sleigh in the night sky. Chris Van Allsburg is to be commended for writing an excellent fantasy and Tom Hanks for conducting the wonder tour to beat them all. The special effects are just outstanding, the story line credible and heartwarming. The characters are believable and utterly charming. The children depicted are our own. I would recommend this film to any and all who love Christmas and remember what it is to believe. The experience of watching makes you a participant, breathless to see what comes next. I can hardly wait to view it on IMAX and am taking my entire family, including seven grandchildren to the Tulsa Cinemark this season. Let’s hope we see more of this quality venue in months and years to come.”

Comment made by Mary McReynolds on www.IMDB. com

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UNIT 5 reaDY For aCTioN

pupil’s BooKpp. 61-72

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1An ambitiousClassProject

Learning to express Intentions, Plans, Arrange-ments and Predictions.

Using the Present Progressive to express Intentions, Plans and Arrangements.

Using Future Simple to express predictions.

All related to the Environment: to recycle, to reduce, to save, to survive, to protect, to (re)use, to collect, to take action for/ against, to litter

All related to the Environment: to recycle, to reduce, to save, to survive, to protect, to (re)use, to collect, to take action for/ against, to litter

4 teaching periods

1) A. Lead – In; B. Listening; C. Role Play.

2) D. Writing;

Grammar.

3) E. Listening; F. Quiz.

4) Portfolio.

Lesson 2 Let’sdo it!

Learning how to express abilities, obligations and giving advice.

Using Can to express abilities.

Obligations with Must.

Expressing advice with Should.

Using Can to express abilities.

Obligations with Must.

Expressing advice with Should.

4 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B. Reading; C. Speaking.

2) D. Listening; E. Speaking.

3) Grammar; F. Pair/Group

Work.

4) G. Reading & Writing.

Lesson 3My Work Can Make a Difference

Expressing/Giving advice.

Recyclable, environmental, environmentally friendly, rechargeable, illegal

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In;B. Speaking.

2) Project.

3) Self-Assessment Test

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uNiT 5reaDY For aCTioNCover page p. 61Time: 3-5 minsInvite pupils to look at the cover page and initiate discussion about recycling. Ask them to describe what they see in the images.• Questions: “What do the first four

pictures have in common? They refer to the environment, litter and recycling.”, “ What does the sign on the bins mean? Only recyclable litter”, “What do you know about recycling? It is essential to save our planet”, “Do you or your families recycle? Yes/No”, “What is the connection between litter and the last two pictures? Litter damages our planet.”

• You could also pre-teach vocabulary; e.g. recycling / to recycle / recyclable / litter / garbage / rubbish / litter bin / glass / aluminium / paper/ plastic/ to reduce, etc.

TapesCripTBoy: One million of different species of animals and plants are in danger. 24 species of Australian butterflies are in danger. Volunteer work can help the planet. Join ‘Youth Camp’ now!!! You and your family can work in Greece, Italy, Turkey and Esthonia. Empty villages, dead people, dead animals, burnt trees are what the fire left behind in Italy, Spain, Turkey, Greece and other places in Europe.

lessoN 1aN amBiTious Class proJeCTaims of the lessona. To introduce the idea of producing less rubbish as a solution to the problems of the environment.b. To teach vocabulary related to litter and recycling.c. To express intentions, plans and arrangements together with expressions for predictions and hypotheses.

d. To teach Future Simple tense, ‘be going to’ and Present Pro gressive tense.

e. To encourage pupils to personalize issues and take action - make a list of intentions and plans and then try to follow them through.

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 62 / Time: 3-5 mins→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.Initiate discussion about the recycling logo. Ask them where we can find this. Tell them the item is environmentally friendly and can be recycled where facilities are available. Explain that if they visit the Greenpeace website they will be able to find more information on recycling. Greek website for WWF: www.wwf.gr(Useful websites P.B. Appendix: p. 140)

WWF (World Widlife Fund) GreeceWWF Greece, the conservation organization, was founded in 1990. It is actively supported by its 11,000 members. With its headquarters in Athens, it has established local teams in N. Pindos, Dadia, Lake Kerkini, Lake Prespa, Zakynthos island and Kastelorizo island. In addition, it expresses integrated positions on specific environmental issues and addresses these to the political authorities. From “Exhibition on the nature and culture of Zagori” bookletB. LISTENINGPB page: 62 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-listening Tell pupils that they are going to listen to Kostas and Mark talking to each other. While-listeningPlay the tape/CD once and ask the pupils what the main idea or gist of the listening passage is. TapesCripTMark: Hello, there, Kostas! How are you today?

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Kostas: Oh, hi, Mark! I’m fine, very busy…Mark: Busy? Why? Are you studying?Kostas: Not exactly. You see, I’m working on an environmental project.Mark: Oh, that sounds interesting! What exactly are you doing?Kostas: Well, our teacher suggested that we should think of various ways to protect our environment. So, we’re going to organise a project on recycling.Mark: Wow, that’s great, Kostas! Are you going to hold an exhibition at school? Kostas: Well, actually we’re going to try to persuade our friends and our teachers to recycle paper, aluminium, glass and plastic.Mark: Oh, I haven’t thought of recycling plastic… Is that possible?Kostas: Yes, of course it is. Everything needs to be possible if we want to save our planet. So, tomorrow morning we’re handing out leaflets and brochures giving information and encouraging everyone at school to take recycling seriously. If we succeed, we’ll manage to do something about our future.Mark: That’s a terrific idea! I think I’ll try it out myself with my classmates. I’ll let you know as soon as I have news. But, please, do let me know about your results. Kostas: Ok, I will. I must get back to work now. Talk to you soon.Mark: Yes, talk to you tomorrow! post-listening• Ask pupils to read and discuss the

statements in the second part of this activity.

• Play the tape/ CD again and let them check their answers.

• Explain unknown words or phrases. You could use realia in order to teach words like leaflets or brochures. For the rest of the vocabulary you could use L1 so that pupils transfer knowledge from their Environmental Education subject.

KeY 1 F, 2 T, 3 T, 4 F, 5 T aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 30KeY 1. organize, 2. environmental, 3.

hand, 4. persuade, 5. recycle, 6. hold, 7. save, 8. terrific, 9. let, 10. results DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY A • p. 75KeY A4-A14: environment, 15I-15B: brochure, 1C-1L: exhibition, 14E-14K: project, E14-E8: protect,7E-7K: recycle, F3-F8: leaflet, 3E-3K: results, K6-K13: persuade, M11-M3: encourage, K9-H12: save, C3-C10: organizeC. ROLE PLAY PB page: 62 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-role playing • In pairs. Here’s the part of the dialogue

they should use in their role-play – it must be either photocopied or written on the blackboard. Alternatively, the pupils could create their own dialogue.

Kostas: Well, our teacher suggested that we should think of various ways to protect our environment. So, we’re going to organize a project on recycling.Mark: Wow, that’s great, Kostas! Are you going to hold an exhibition at school? Kostas: Well, actually we’re going to try to persuade our friends and our teachers to recycle paper, aluminium, glass and plastic.Mark: Oh, I haven’t thought of recycling plastic… Is that possible?Kostas: Yes, of course it is. Everything is possible if we want to save our planet.• The underlined section can be changed

with the prompts provided in the Pupil’s Book.

• Pupils should take turns and act out the dialogue.

• To provide a model, role play the dialogue with one of the pupils in front of the class.

While-role playing • Make sure they use L2 during the activity.• Move among the pairs and help when you

are asked to.• Stop them when the time limit is up and

ask 1 or 2 pairs to act it out in front of

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their classmates.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 30KeY 1 d, 2 f, 3 i, 4 b, 5 g, 6 h, 7 c, 8 a, 9 eD. WRITING PB page: 63 / Time: 2-3 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.• On a piece of paper, pupils write a list

of three of the things they discussed and put their names underneath. This is their commitment to help improve the environment.

• Put the pieces of paper on the classroom noticeboard and remind them at the end of the unit to put a tick or a cross next to the things they did to help reduce rubbish production.

• Identify pupils who have achieved the most for a special mention.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 31KeY 1. will travel, 2. are you doing/ is having/am taking, 3. will you do, 4. will be/ am going to ask or will ask, 5. are working/ are going to recycle/ are going to visit/ ask/ are going to plant/ will succeed.DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITY C • p. 76KeY 1. will, 2. are you going to do, is having, I’m taking, 3. will you do?, I’ll be, I’m going to ask, 4. are working, are going to recycle, are going to visit, are going to ask, are going to plant, will?

Grammar FoCusPB page: 63 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12aims: To teacha. BE GOING TO for INTENTIONSb. PRESENT PROGRESSIVE TENSE for PLANS

& ARRANGEMENTSc. FUTURE SIMPLE TENSE for PREDICTIONS

& HYPOTHESES presentation• Invite pupils to look at the Grammar

Section of this lesson. Ask them to study the examples and elicit the rules

and structures used for expressing the functions included in the box.

• Explain to them these are ways of expressing something that will most probably take place in the future. The different structures mean the different degrees of probability.

• You can present the following diagram on the blackboard

– When something is likely to happen we use the Future Simple tense

– When something is already arranged and will definitely happen we use the Present Progressive tense

– When it is our intention to happen we use the be going to form

• Ask pupils to look for similar expressions in the dialogue (p. 62), while they are listening to it again and try and identify their function.

• Finally, ask the pupils to tell you how the three different structures are formed

Future Simple: will + base form Present Progressive: is/are/am + –ing Is/are/am + going to + base form • Always remind pupils that they can refer

to the Grammar section at the back of the book so that they revise or check Grammar items. (Note: this will be added at a later stage).

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 31KeY Sample answers TB p. 126.E. LISTENING PB page: 63 / Time: 5-7 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-listening • Individually. Tell the pupils that now they

are going to listen to another pupil talking to a local reporter. They are talking about a project about the environment.

• Ask them to read the instructions and check they know what they have to do.

• Teach unknown words and explain that

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holding a paper recycling drive means organizing a paper recycling campaign.

While-listening Play the tape / CD as many times as needed for the pupils to be able to understand.TapesCripTReporter: Well Jack, can you tell us a few things about the project?Jack: Yes, sure! Well, it’s all about our class trip, you know. We are going to collect money for this and we thought that we could organize a campaign. So, we’re holding a paper recycling drive to pay for this trip. We are putting bins in the school in order to collect used paper. We’re also bringing old newspapers and magazines from home. It’s so nice to know that every ton of paper that we recycle, we can save 17 trees from being cut down to make new paper! We believe that in the end we’ll manage to get the money we need.Reporter: I hope everything turns up the way you want. Good luck !Adapted from http://www.epa.gov/recyclecity/KeY 1. A, 2. B, 3. B, 4. B, 5. C.post-listening • In pairs, pupils check their answers. • As a whole class activity, discuss for 2-3

minutes the feasibility of implementing such a project at their school.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY E • p. 32KeY

PAPER BOX METAL BOX PLASTIC BOXcomics spoon dollmagazines can plastic bagnewspaper cd car model

COMPOST BOX GLASS BOXpotato jartomato bottlelettuce window

F. QUIZ PB page: 64 / Time: 5-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 11

→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.• In pairs, pupils do the quiz. This will

sensitize them and hopefully may make them understand how much damage we can cause to the world around us.

• Let them check their answers with other pairs.

• Discuss the issues – ask for ideas how to stop environmental destruction. Make them discuss about ways they could recycle at home. Elicit responses about recycling programmes in their areas. “Are there such programmes in our municipality?” ‘Do you participate?”, “What are the advantages of taking part?” “Are there any problems?” etc.

KeY 1. 2,800,000,000 2. 28,000,000,000 3. 4,900,000,000G. PORTFOLIOPB page: 64 / Time: 7-10 mins / TB Introduction p. 14→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.• In pairs, tell pupils to read the instructions

and make a first draft of the letter.• Allow peer correction.• Peers return the drafts with comments and

the pairs can re-write them and illustrate them in any way they prefer.

• Point out to the pupils the list of websites in Appendix p. 140. Suggest they could visit the ones which have interactive activities. All of them highlight how necessary recycling litter is.

• Another activity would be to visit the FUN PARK area in the CD ROM of the 6th Grade and do the recycling activities in the EXTRAS.

lessoN 2leT’s Do iTaims of the lessona. To develop pupils’ environmentally friendly behaviourb. To make them speak about what people can, must or should do

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about environmental problemsc. To expose them to relevant issues and ideas and make them work with their peers to find solutionsA. LEAD-IN PB page: 65 / Time: 3 minsInitiate discussion and let pupils offer ideas about questions they would like to include in a questionnaire. Tell them that the use of questionnaires is common in surveys.B. READINGPB page: 65 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-reading• Ask pupils how much they know about

electricity and how it is produced. You can talk about Ptolemaida, in Northern Greece, and the ΔΕΗ power station that is the most important unit for the production and distribution of electricity in Greece.

• Also, talk about environmental problems in that area or any other place they know about.

While-reading• Now let them answer the questionnaire.• In case they ask for words make them guess

their meaning from the context. If they are unsuccessful, then offer explanation.

• In the end they should check and see how environmentally friendly each one is.

post-reading• In pairs, let them compare results and ask

pupils to report to the class.• Discuss results and praise those who have

done well. Offer suggestions to those who haven’t – “ From now on you could

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 33KeY aT sChool• try to persuade classmates/ teachers• avoid using plastic forks / knives / plates,

etc.• collect used paper / newspapers /

magazines /

recycling• bring food from home / reusable boxes• use notebooks/ made / recycled paperaT home• try to persuade parents / family• avoid using plastic forks / knives/ plates,

etc.• collect used paper/ newspapers /

magazines / recycling• plant a tree/ take care of it• use re-chargeable batteries• use notebooks/ made / recycled paperC. SPEAKING & WRITING PB page: 66 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10, 11→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.Stage 1• Explain to pupils what they have to discuss

here is only a plan. They don’t have to do it now.

• First they choose a theme which is an environmental problem in their area.

• Then they must plan 3 activities, like the ones they have met in other parts of this unit and make notes under 3 different days of the week. Under each day they will describe one separate action they plan to undertake to help ease the problem.

• Offer ideas for problems and remind them of the project in the previous lesson. Ask them to use vocabulary they have already met.

• Set a time limit. It is important for children at this age to get accustomed to time restrictions so that they develop appropriate strategies in order to overcome the problem.

Stage 2• In pairs, pupils work with their partner.• Walk among the pairs and help with L2Stage 3• Ask pairs to exchange ideas and present

their plan to their peers. They must also explain what the outcome of their campaign is expected to be.

• Ask them to report to the class and

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encourage critical thinking by asking questions like: “ What do you expect that will change?”, or “Why do you think people will change their habits?”, etc.

D. LISTENINGPB page: 67 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-listening • Let pupils read the instructions and clarify

unknown facts. E.g. explain to them that a summit meeting about the environment is a meeting where important people from different countries around the world discuss ways of protecting the environment. Countries are then asked to abide by and apply what is agreed in the summit meeting. Give examples of the Kyoto Protocol and talk about issues like Global Warming and climate change. Tell them that one of the factors which influence pollution is excessive littering.

• Make them guess what the listening will be about.

• re-teach unknown vocabulary items through pictures – cloth bag, plastic bag, packaging, groceries, cardboard box, to recycle, recyclable, to reuse, to protest, etc.

While-Listening• Play the tape/ CD once.• Pupils do the task.TapesCripTActivist: …but of course we can make a real difference! Even children like you can take action! For example, when you go shopping with your parents look for products that have less packaging or use ecological packaging. You can check the packaging by reading the symbols. Even better, you can also buy fresh, non-packaged produce. You can also ask your mum to bring a cloth bag or reuse an old plastic bag to carry home your groceries and other shopping. Why not ask for cardboard boxes at the supermarket? They can be reused for other purposes or recycled.And one more thing…when you shop, you

should always look for products that can be recycled – or have been recycled already. Look for the recycle symbol on the label.Kostas: Do you really believe that we can make older people listen to us? But…… (fading out)• Play the tape again if needed.KeY Only b. is with a cross. All the other images are positive.post- listeningIn pairs pupils check their choices. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 34KeY

VIDEO 22,60 eurosDVD: 11,20 eurosCD PLAYER: 5,20 eurosPC SCREEN: 7,50 eurosPRINTER: 6 eurosSCANNER: 4,50 eurosMICROWAVE: 9 eurosWASHING MACHINE: 5,20 euros

Grammar FoCusPB page: 68 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12presentation• Ask pupils to look at the structures in this

section.• Remind them of modal verbs they had

met in the book for D’ class.• Elicit rules – “How are they formed?”-

modal + verb (infinitive), “Why are they called Modals?”- they are elliptical, they do not form all tenses, etc.

• Elicit forms for the functions presented here.

• Prompt pupils in order to elicit responses where pupils use the structures. Use ideas from the questionnaire on page 65. Make questions like, “What must people do at the beach?”, Tell what I should do at school in order not to produce litter”, etc.

• Write their responses on the blackboard and they can use them later on in their projects.

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E. PAIR WORK OR GROUP WORKPB page: 68 / Time: 10-15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• In pairs or groups of 4 pupils. Pupils read

the instructions and then discuss what their posters will include.

• Draw their attention and comment on other posters which may already be on the classroom walls or in the school. Comment on what makes them successful.

• Offer ideas so that pupils who are competent in Art can make the drawings.

• Set a time limit and move among the groups. Offer your help when asked for it. Ensure that pupils use L2.

F. READING & WRITING PB page: 69 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction pp. 9-10.→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.pre-reading• Invite pupils to guess from the title and

the illustration what the reading passage is going to be about.

• Use a map to ensure that pupils know which is the Mediterranean Sea and which countries are called Mediterranean. Remind them of vocabulary items related to countries and nationalities, geography and borders, weather, etc

• Elicit problems in the Mediterranean area, e.g. sea pollution, climate changes, fires, forest destruction, wars etc.

While-readingIn pairs, pupils make a chart with 3 columns listing country, problem and where possible an idea for a solution.post-readingPupils present findings and discuss.

lessoN 3mY WorK CaN maKe a DiFFereNCe!aims of the lessona. To encourage pupils to mediate and give

advice to people who do not speak the Greek language.

b. To engage them in organizing bigger projects that can be relevant to their situation following steps and apply- ing what has already been discussed.c. To boost their confidence and encourage critical thinking.d. To make them utilize Internet sources to elicit relevant information.A. LEAD-IN PB page: 70 / Time: 5 mins→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.Let pupils brainstorm and use their experience to talk about the issues in this section.Background information• When you enjoy a walk in nature, please

carry a bag for your litter. Garbage is a product of our modern civilization, but does not have a place in nature.

• Be informed by the local authorities regarding the existing legal framework for the protection of northern Pindos.

• If you are amateur fisherman, we inform you that in the Voidomatis river fishing is prohibited all year round.

• Avoid collecting flowers, since you risk cutting rare, protected or endemic flora species of the area.

• If you wish to rest by the river or the forest, avoid the use of soaps and other polluting substances that threaten the fragile flora and fauna of the area.

Adapted from WWF leaflet “Visitor Code of Conduct” distributed at the Zagori area of northern Pindos.B. SPEAKING & WRITING PB page: 70 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction pp. 10-11→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.Stage 1• Inform pupils that they will need to use

mediation tasks for this activity. Explain to them that mediation is not translation. They must read PB, Appendix, p. 141 (in Greek) and use the information to give some information and advice to people

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who cannot speak or read Greek. They must “mediate” so that a problem can be solved.

• Then, elicit or offer information about the area of Zagorohoria and the protected area of the Pindos forests.

Background informationZagori is situated on the northwestern

edge of the Pindos mountain range and consists of 46 settlements, surrounded by steep mountains.

The following types of vegetation are found in Zagori: Sub-alpine and alpine meadows, beech forests, black pine forests, fir forests, oak forests, holly oak, and hornbeam, riverside vegetation.

The area is protected by UNESCO and is characterized as national heritage. The area of the mountain of Pindos around Papigo village is considered protected and for this reason no logging or hunting is permitted.

Every species of large mammal found in Greek mainland, except of the red deer, have their habitats in Zagori. The majority of these are rare and protected under national and international legislation- the brown bear, the Balkan chamois, the roe deer, the wolf, the otter and others.

Famous sights of the area: the Vikos gorge, the Voidomatis river and its springs which is considered the clearest river in Europe, the Aoos gorge, etc.Adapted from the WWF booklet about the Zagori area – The Papingo Information Centre for Nature and Culture in Zagori, operated by WWF Greece in collaboration with the Community of Papingo. Stage 2• In pairs, pupils work and complete chart.• Then they form bigger groups and compare

what each pair have produced.• They can be encouraged to use some peer

correction, correct or reformulate.Stage 3Their works can be used at the Computer Science hour to be typed and be ready to be included in the school newspaper or their Portfolio.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 5 • LESSON 3 • ACTIVITY A • p. 35Pupils fill in personal details.PROJECT PB page: 70 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES.• In groups of 3-4 pupils, let pupils choose

which project they would like to do.• Then they must decide

a. about the issueb. the final product, i.e. booklet, leaflet,

picture, poster, letter, etc.c. materials they would needd. a visit to the area to take photos or

videoe. other ideas

• Ask them to decide about who is going to do what• Tell them to keep notes and then use them

for the final product• They should be advised to accept others’

ideas and suggestions• Finally, encourage them to work on the

internet or with encyclopedias or other resources to get ideas and information.

• Facilitate their work but do not do it for them.

• Praise them and give them opportunities to demonstrate their work to other pupils or teachers and parents. Put them on the walls, the school newspaper, the school web page, etc.

BOARD GAME: See PB Appendix, pp. 142-143 for fun recycling game.CULTURAL CORNER a. recycling at schoolLibrary

The school library is the best place to learn about reuse, because that’s what a library is all about. Because these books can be borrowed, read, and returned, their reuse saves thousands of trees.

Rebuilt computers, purchased from the local Mr. Fix-it Shop with money raised from the students’ recycling drives, also help preserve our natural resources. Many

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students use the computers to do their schoolwork, saving paper by making all of their changes before printing out the final copy.

Also, because of computers, students can use the Internet to tap the local newspaper, Recycle City University, and research centers and databases around the world. Getting information through the computer saves paper, and reduces energy consumption and pollution by eliminating the need to drive from place to place to get what they need. Background informationForest fires in the Mediterranean: A burning issue

The Mediterranean has been identified by WWF as one of the most important regions in the world for its outstanding biodiversity features. Mediterranean forests, situated in a transitional zone between the European, African and Asian continents, are one of the planet’s centres of plant diversity, with 25,000 floral species representing 10% of the world’s flowering plants on just over 1.6% of the Earth’s surface. They also play host to an amazing faunal diversity.

But the Mediterranean forests are also under serious threat, with forest fires, in most cases deliberately set, playing a major role in their degradation and bringing about huge social, economic and environmental effects.

There is a strong need to put in place an effective policy of prevention to address the root causes of this phenomenon.The issue

The Mediterranean region is heavily affected by forest fires; every year more than 50,000 fires burn an estimated

average of 600,000 - 800,000 hectares, an area comparable to the island of Crete or the island of Corsica, and equal to 1,3 – 1,7 % of the total Mediterranean forests.

While small-scale fires may be part of the natural dynamics and the management of the natural resources, large-scale forest fires throughout the region have dramatically increased during the last few decades, mainly as a consequence of the rapid land-use changes, socio-economic conflicts and competing interests characterising the Mediterranean region in the last decades.

EU Mediterranean countries – Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece – have been particularly affected: the average total burnt area in these countries has quadrupled since the 60’s.

Of all the forest fires in the Mediterranean, human induced ones, mostly due to deliberate lighting of forest fires and negligence, account for more than 95%.

As a result of the intensification of forest fires, the capacity of the Mediterranean ecosystems to naturally regenerate in many areas has been reduced, while extensive areas are being affected by biodiversity loss, soil erosion and water scarcity.

Indeed, forest fires aggravate soil erosion, leading ultimately to desertification. This also leads to huge economic costs.

The risk of forest fires is further aggravated by the current climate change trend in the Mediterranean region, which is also reducing the capability of Mediterranean forests to accommodate them.Source:www.panda.org/about_forest/forestfires2003factfiles

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UNIT 6 GooD, BeTTer, BesT!

pupil’s BooKpp. 73-84

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Choosinga present

Learning how to compare places as well as items.

Persuading a friend one place is better than another.

Presentation of Compa-ratives, regular and irregular.

Adjectives used to express differences between people, places and objects.

Links to Geography syllabus with items on the US, Britain, Greece, rivers and mountains.

To prepare questions for a Knowledge Quiz children are asked to draw upon All Subjects.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead – In; B. Reading &

Writing.

2) C. Listening & Writing;Grammar;

D. Speaking

3) E. Listening; F. Speaking

Lesson 2 Worldrecords

Scanning a website.

Describing world records.

Creating simple slogans.

Compara-tives and Supera-tives.

Vocabulary related to places.

Review of vocabulary related to computer hardware.

3 teaching periods

1) A. Lead-In; B.Reading; C. Speaking .

2) D. Internet Research;

E. Listening; Grammar

3) F. Speaking; G. Writing.

Lesson 3A know-ledgequiz

Formulating questions to find out world records.

Vocabulary spanning all subect areas.

4 teaching periods

1) A. Writing

2) Project

3) Project

4) Self-Assessment Test

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uNiT 6GooD, BeTTer, BesT! Cover page p. 73Time: 5 mins• Do the children ever watch knowledge

quizzes on TV? There are several of them in the evenings. What type of questions do they ask? Often the questions refer to records: the longest, the smallest, the biggest etc.

TapesCripTGirl 1: Which is the longest river in the world? (the answer is with pupil 1)Boy: Which is the biggest English dictionary in the world? (pupil 3)Girl 2: In which two countries are the world’s fastest cars made? (pupil 2)

lessoN 1ChoosiNG a preseNTaims of the lesson

a. to introduce comparativesb. to learn to compare countries

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 74 / Time: 10 mins • There are moments during each week

when each of us has to choose between one thing or another. To make the best choice, instinctively we compare between things.

• Ask the pupils to give examples of choices they have to make: I’m late, is it quicker for me to take the bus today rather than walk to school?

• In L2, help the pupils to formulate some simple sentences orally.

B. READING & WRITING PB page: 74 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction pp. 9-10pre-reading• Set the scene. It’s Jim’s birthday and his

classmates would like to choose a gift he will appreciate, also staying within a reasonable budget.

• The pupils are looking at similar items with different prices and have to make a choice and justify it using the comparative

structure. • Some adjectives to describe and compare

the items in the shop have been given. Get the children to give you other possible adjectives.

While-reading • Looking for specific information, the pupils

in pairs quickly compare items, prices and make up their minds.

• In no. 1, they write down short sentences for two of the shops, comparing items.

post-reading• Between all the items, get them to choose

in small groups what they think Jim would like best and write their answers on the lines provided.

• Check to see whether the different groups agree and elicit reasons.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 36Free answers. Sample answers p. 126.C. LISTENING & WRITINGPB page: 75 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY & THE BRITISH ISLES.Dave, a friend of Mark’s is trying to persuade Mark to come to Brighton on holiday.

pre-listening• With a map of Britain, indicate where

Brighton and Blackpool are located in relation to London. Both are popular holiday resorts for the British. Do they know anything about Brighton or Blackpool? If you have access to the Internet, show them photos.

• The task is that of noting down what makes Brighton a better holiday resort.

While-listening• Play the listening 2 maybe 3 times. Pupils

list 3 things (there are more than 3) that make Brighton better than Blackpool as a holiday destination.

TapesCripT (Dave speaking)Look, Mark, don’t go to Blackpool as you

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usually do. Come to Brighton for your holidays this year. It’s sunnier than Blackpool and over the past few years the temperatures have been better here than in the North, where Blackpool is. Brighton’s pier has many more attractions than Blackpool’s and the town’s fish and chip shops are as good as Blackpool’s. Blackpool’s beach may be sandier but Brighton’s also has a lot more amusem*nt arcades. There is also a very fast and regular train service from London to Brighton. The direct train takes only about 1 hour. That’s a lot less than the 4 hours it takes to get to Blackpool. You must come to Brighton this summer!post-listening• In pairs, pupils can role-play: One pupil

plays Mark and the other, one of his parents.

• Mark has to give his mother/father 3 good reasons why they should spend their summer holidays in Brighton.Sample Answers1. a friend from Brighton.2. more attractions.3. fast train transportation to London.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY Β • p. 41Free answers. Sample answers p. 126.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 75 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 12Comparatives: Distinguish between one & two-syllable adjectives and longer adjectives.

tall tallerlate laterhappy happier intelligent more Intelligent

Present irregular comparatives: good better bad worse much more little less

D. SPEAKINGPB page: 75 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11

pre-speaking• Set the scene. Lots of places organise

competitions: supermarkets, department stores so there is a slim chance someone may one day win a prize like the one mentioned here. What would each pupil’s dream destination be?

• The pupils write their 3 dream destinations.

While-speakingIn pairs, pupils compare and contrast saying why they have chosen these places. post-speakingCheck with class which destination is the most popular and why?aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 37Free anwers. Sample answers p. 126.E. READING PB page: 76 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9pre-reading• Check what pupils think about the pros

and cons of living in the city versus living in the countryside. Which do they prefer and why?

• Tell them about chats on Internet. Though they are called chats (generally referred to spoken language), the participants read each others’ messages. They are much quicker than e-mail and several people can participate at any one time.

• What do your pupils know about London? Some information is given in the next activity.

While-readingStudents identify what the pros and cons are according to Mark, Steve and Kostas. post-readingPupils do the True/False questions. KeY 1F, 2F, 3T, 4T, 5T. F. SPEAKING: ROLE PLAY PB page: 76 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHYpre-speakingSet the scene. When we meet someone

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from another city we are always curious to know about their city. In this situation where Mark and Kostas are interested in each other’s cities. While-speakingIn pairs, one pupil should be Kostas and the other Mark. With the information given in the charts, they make sentences comparing and contrasting each other’s cities.post-speakingPupils can give lists of information about other cities they know or they may come from. They can make sentences comparing them with Greece.InformationFootball teams:• London: London (British Premier League):

Chelsea, Arsenal, Tottenham Hotspur, West Ham United (4)

• Athens: Athens (Super League Greece): Olympiakos, Panathanaikos, AEK, Panionios, Egaleo, Atromitos (6)

olympic Games• London: 1908, 1948, 2004 • Athens: 1896, 2004airports: • London (5): Heathrow, Gatwick,

Stanstead, Luton, London City • Athens: Eleftherios Venizelos

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 38Free answers. Sample answers p. 126.G. WRITINGPB page: 77 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY & GREECEpre-WritingTo make the exercise more challenging, pupils should write about places they have not been to.While-Writing• ach pupil collects data on their chosen

town.• In pairs, they write sentences to compare

the 2 places.post-WritingSome pupils may want to read out what

they have written.

lessoN 2WorlD reCorDsaims of the lessona. More work on comparatives and

presentation of superlativesA. LEAD-IN PB page: 78 / Time: 10 mins• Elicit answers to the 2 questions given.

Get the pupils to find other things they can compare between themselves.

B. READINGPB page: 78 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9pre-reading• Have the pupils heard about the Guinness

Book of Records? Explain these are excerpts from the book. In the book, or through the website given below, they can find lots more world records.

• Prediction: in pairs get the pupils to guess what record each photo relates to. Discuss answers altogether.

While-reading• In pairs, the pupils read the questions on

p. 79. Then scan read the passages to obtain the answers.

• While scanning, they will be invariably impressed by other bits of information from the texts. Ask them to jot these down and share them during the Post-Reading.

post-readingCheck the answers. Get the pupils to share other bits of information that impressed them, e.g. One small drop of poison from the King cobra can kill an elephant! KeY 1. a, 2. c, 3. c, 4. b, 5. b, 6. c.C. SPEAKINGPB page: 67 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. XIIpre-speakingHow well do they remember the texts? In pairs, play a game and get each pupil to form 4 questions. He/she asks his/her partner. The one who guesses the most

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correct answers wins. They can refer back to the texts.While-speakingWhile the pupils in pairs are formulating the questions and giving replies, the teacher can go around the class checking speaking work being done.post-speakingTeacher reviews the correct questions and answers.D. INTERNET RESEARCH PB page: 79 / Time: 15 mins→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER STUDIESThe activity depends on how easy it is for the pupils to have access to the Internet at school. Here we are assuming they have access to multiple desktop stations. pre-searchOnce the students are in the Guinness Records website, tell them to skim the website, to get a general feel for the different categories. They can then focus on the areas that interest them. While-searchingThey can choose the most interesting records and fill in the boxes. post-search• In pairs, pupils share their findings,

describing why they are so interesting. • If you do not have the possibility to

search the Web, ask the pupils whether they have a copy of the Guiness Book of Records, even an old copy and work from that – it is generally full of curious records and interesting facts.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 39KeY 1. clean, cleaner, the cleanest 2. nice, nicer, the nicest 3. cheap, cheaper, the cheapest 4. fast, faster, the fastest 5. tidy, tidier, the tidiest 6. terrible, more terrible, the most terrible 7. hot, hotter, the hottest 8. large, larger, the largest 9. wet, wetter, the wettest

10. good, better, the best11. strong, stronger, the strongest12. clever, cleverer, the cleverest13. old, older, the oldest14. friendly, friendlier, the friendliest15. exciting, more exciting, the most

exciting16. big, bigger, the biggest17. near, nearer, the nearest18. interesting, more interesting, the

most interesting19. young, younger, the youngest20. bad, worse, the worst21. dangerous, more dangerous, the

most dangerous22. short, shorter, the shortest23. messy, messier, the messiestE. LISTENING PB page: 79 / Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: COMPUTER STUDIESpre-listening• Set the scene. Explain Kostas and Mark

are in a computer shop. The names of the 3 laptops are similar to those of product currently in the market. It is a monologue from the salesperson: you may like to point out the difference between dialogue and monologue.

• Be clear what the pupils are meant to be listening for. Refer back to Unit 1 and check pupils recall the computer hardware terminology.

While-listening• The first listening is a gist listening to get

a feel for what is happening.• During second listening pupils take notes

for the chart. As a lot of information is presented in a short space of time, the pupils may need a third and fourth listening of the text.

TapesCripT (the Salesperson speaking)All of these are very good laptops. The WP has a larger memory and is the smallest in size and at 900 pounds is the most expensive of the three. The Comtact is probably the best value of the three: it costs 799 pounds, it has

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a very fast drive, in fact the fastest of these 3 models. Its memory, however, is not as big as the WP. The Sory has an excellent high definition screen and is a very light model compared to the other two. Because it’s an older model, the drive isn’t as fast as the others. It is also the only one which comes with a free carrying case and is overall the cheapest at 749 pounds.post-listeningIn pairs, pupils compare answers. KeYWP: the most expensive, the largest memory.Contact: the fastest drive & smallest memory.Sory: the best screen definition, the lightest, the slowest drive, the cheapest.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 40Free answers. Sample p. 127.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 80 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• From the work done so far in the unit, the

pupils should be able to give you some of the grammar guidelines for comparatives. Introduce superlatives.

• Review comparatives and present superlatives. Distinguish between one & two-syllable adjectives and longer adjectives.

tall taller the tallestlate later the latesthappy happier the happiestintelligent more the most intelligent the intelligent

Present irregular superlatives:good better the Bestbad worse the Worstmuch more the Mostlittle less the Least

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 40KeY

1. bigger, 2. more beautiful, 3. most difficult, 4. longer, 5. most poisonous, 6. healthier, 7. more expensive, 8. youngest, 9. colder, 10. safest.F. SPEAKING PB page: 81 / Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHYpre-speakingSet the scene saying we often have to choose between not only 2 but a number of items within the same category. We therefore need to be able to use the appropriate language to compare and contrast between them. Here we are comparing items of Geography.While-speakingIn Pairs.Pupils say the sentences to each other based on the model given.post-speakingIn Pairs.• Each pupil draws 3 items within a same

category. • In L1 the pupil can describe the context: a

supermarket, a department store, a shop. • Using 2 –3 phrases they can compare and

contrast the items to his/her partner using comparatives and superlatives.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY D • p. 41KeY 1. taller than/NOT taller from; 2. best/ NOT most best; 3. correct, 4. in /NOT of in; 5. correct, 6. more/ NOT the more; 7. happiest/ NOT/ the most happiest; 8. bigger/NOT the bigger; 9. correct, 10. in our family/NOT from.G. WRITINGPB page: 81 / Time: 25 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-Writing • Bring an English magazine and show

adverts which use superlatives (the quietest…, the most relaxing…) and point out advertising plays on comparisons between products.

• In small groups, ask the students to create

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an advert. They must follow the steps indicated in the Pupil’s Book.

While-WritingIn small groups, pupils prepare the advert. Help them with the advert’s slogan – it has to be catchy. post-WritingPut adverts on the classroom walls. Give the best advert a prize!aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 6 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY E • p. 41KeY 1. than; 2. of, in; 3. in; 4. than; 5. the, of; 6. of, in; 7. the; 8. than; 9. the; 10. than.

lessoN 3a KNoWleDGe QuiZaims of the lesson

a. To create one’s own knowledge quizA. WRITING PB page: 82 / Time: 15 mins• Get the students to alternate at asking

each other in pairs the questions from the questionnaire. They can keep a points system and see who wins.

• If necessary tell them to skip the difficult questions and look for the answers later in encyclopaedias or through the Internet.

Answers: 1c, 2b, 3c, 4b, 5a, 6c, 7a, 8a, 9a, 10c.PROJECT PB page: 82 / Time: 30 mins / TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, SCIENCE, ARTS• Ask the pupils several days beforehand to

start collecting data for questions. This will allow you set up the activity more quickly.

• Put the pupils in groups of four. Once the pupils have written their questions, quickly check the questions are not too difficult. There has to be some chance the pupils will be able to answer them. Ensure the children through the questions are practising the structures learnt in the unit.

Set the quiz up with clear guidelines: ✓ decide on how to keep points✓ a clear order of who asks the questions✓ clear time limits (e.g. one minute maxi- mum to answer each question)✓ make sure the rest of the class keeps silent while the pupils are concentrating in answering the questions.Besides the main prize for the winning group, have consolation prizes for the rest of the pupils.

CulTural CorNer Which is the “tallest” building in the world?

Since the dawn of history man has been trying to build the ‘tallest building’, ‘tallest tower’ or ‘tallest structure’ in the world. During the first 90 years of this century, the USA dominated the race for the title of the tallest building in the world, and constructed a range of famous buildings that, sometimes only for a few months, and sometimes for many years, were widely recognized as being the ‘tallest building’ in the world. In 1974 Chicago’s Sears Tower was completed, and generally seen as the ‘tallest building’ in the world. Sears held on to that title for over 20 years. But since the ninetees the USA gets some stiff competition from Asia. In 1996 this resulted in the completion of the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur. From that moment on a sort of media clash

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was unleashed. All over the world people debated about the question witch one was the tallest; Sears or Petronas. Now the answer to this question seems so easy. Just measure both buildings from bottom to top, and the tallest one gets the title. Question answered, case closed, no more debate needed? Forget it! As usual, life is not that simple. One could consider how to measure these buildings. For example, do we take in account spires and antennas? To end this discussion, the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat made a compromise. They defined 4 categories for measuring tall buildings; Height to the structural or architectural top.

- Height to the highest occupied floor.- Height to the top of the roof. - Height to the top of antenna.

Building, city Year Floors m ft.1. Taipei 101, Taipei, Taiwan 2004 101 508 1,6672. Petronas Tower 1, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 88 452 1,4833. Petronas Tower 2, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 1998 88 452 1,4834. Sears Tower, Chicago 1974 110 442 1,4505. Jin Mao Building, Shanghai 1999 88 421 1,381

From www.tallestbuildingintheworld.com

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Photocopiable

proGress TesT 2 (units 4-6)

Vocabulary1. Word Categories: Put the words in the box in the correct column. The first four have been done for you.

rubbish

delicious

friendly

sweetChristmas Eve

celebrate

organize

presents

hot

recycling

decorations

energy

decorate reduce sledge comfortable

pollution

elves brochures reuselight persuade

litter reindeer

NOUNS ADJECTIVES VERBS CHRISTMAS WORDS ENVIRONMENT WORDSChristmas Eve rubbish hot organize

Points: ....... / 20

structures2. Simple Present or Present Continuous:Serena and her family are visiting Legoland in Billum, Denmark for Christmas. Read her e-mail to her friends and choose the correct verb forms:

Dear FriendsI send / am sending you my e-mail to tell you how wonderful things are here in Legoland. I usually spend / am usually spending Christmas holidays at home and I am doing / do all the usual things; I visit / am visiting my grandparents, sing / am singing Christmas Carols and so on. But this year, things are different. I visit/ am visiting an incredible world built from more than 20 million LEGO bricks. My brother goes/ is going on a safari with

the wild animals of the Savannah! My parents are having / have lunch at the saloon of a Wild West town. My sister and I have/ are having a great time at Pirate Land and we sail / are sailing in the secret pirate’s cave. And everything is made of bricks. Wow!I’ll tell you more when I get back.Lots of kissesSerenaPoints: ....... / 10

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structures3. Future Forms:Students are discussing their environmental project “Arcturos”. Complete the dialogues using will–future, be going to and Present Continuous of the verbs in brackets.Group A:– Let’s see what we can do. – I ....................... (1) (write) to the people of Arcturos to ask them about the brown bear.– Do you think they ....................... (2) (send) us leaflets and posters for our project?– Yes, I believe, they ....................... (3) (do) it.Group B:– John and Mary, what ....................... (4) (you/ do) for the project?– We ................................... (5) (hand out) leaflets and brochures to our school.– And what about you Claudia?– I think my mum ....................... (6) (help) us. She .............................. (7) (offer) some money to our group and we can use it in our project.Group C:– Let’s say it again. Nikoleta, you ....................... (8) (collect) money for the adoption of one of the brown bears at the conservation park. Kelly, you ....................... (9) (send) email to the “Arcturos” people and finally, I ....................... (10) (write) an article for our school newspaper. Good luck everybody!Points: ....... / 20

structures4. Comparatives:Fill in the correct form of the words in brackets (comparative or superlative).– Where shall we go shopping?– Let’s visit the big shopping center “The Call”.– Well, I don’t like going there! I find our local market ....................... (1) (friendly) than that. – Yes, but you can find the ....................... (2) (cheap) CD’s and PC Games ever. There are also ....................... (3) (many) athletic shops than anywhere else in our city.– You may be right about that but I still believe that shopping in our local market is .............................. (4) (convenient) than going to “The Call”, even at the ....................... (5) (busy) days of the week. – Ok, then. Let’s do it your way.Points: ....... / 10

5. expressions ilook/ smell/ taste/ feelLook at the pictures and write what people say in each case. Use the expressions with look/ taste/ smell/ feel.

This cheese .................................................................................................

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This sweater ...............................................................................................

This cake .....................................................................................................

That suit .....................................................................................................

These flowers .............................................................................................

Points: ....... / 20

expressions ii6. Obligations – AdviceConnections: Put the sentences below in pairs.

1. “I’ve got a Maths test tomorrow.” a. …you must never cheat.”2. “When people are in a zoo… b. …when they overtake a car.”3. “Excuse me, sir. When you’re c. …“You should study hard, then.” on an escalator…4. Teacher: “When you’re doing a test… d. …they mustn’t feed the animals.”5. “Cyclists must always signal… e. …you should stand on the right.”

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Points: ....... / 10

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Key to proGress test 21. Word CategoriesNounsChristmas Words Environment Words Adjectives Verbs decorations recycling delicious celebratepresents energy sweet decoratesledge pollution friendly reduceelves brochures comfortable reusereindeer litter light persuade

20 x 1 = 20 pts

2. Simple Present Vs Present Continuous1. I am sending 5. sing 9. are having 2. usually spend 6. am visiting 10. are sailing 3. do, 7. is going 4. visit 8. are having 10 x 2 = 20 pts

3. Future Forms1. I’m going to write 5. are going to hand out 9. are sending 2. they will send 6. will help 10. I’m writing 3. they will do 7. is going to offer 4. are you going to do 8. are collecting 10 x 2 = 20 pts

4. Comparatives1. friendlier 2. cheapest 3. more 4. more convenient 5. busiest5 x 2 = 10 pts

5. Expressions Ilook / smell / taste / feel1. smells horrible / bad / awful2. feels soft3. tastes great / delicious / fantastic4. looks great / good / fantastic / pretty / wonderful / elegant / stylish / modern.5. smell good / great / fantastic5 x 4 = 20 pts

6. Expressions IIConnections1. – c , 2. – d , 3. – e , 4. – a , 5. – b5 x 2 = 30 pts

Total : 100 pts

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UNIT 7 GoiNG BaCK iN Time

pupil’s BooKpp. 85-96

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Famous People of the Past

Preparing a presentation

Past Simple in the Affirmative Form – Regular Verbsand a few irregular

The Theatre and Artists.

The Theatre in Ancient Greece and Elizabethan England.

Famous people in Greek and International History.

Famous Painters: El Greco and Theophanis the Greek.

Alexander the Great and Leadership.

3 teaching periods

1. A. Lead In;B. Reading.

2. C. Listening;

Grammar Focus:

3. D. Speaking;E. Speaking.

Lesson 2 Past Experiences

ExperiencesExpressing Sequences of Events

Past Simple in the Negative and Question forms.

Crime and Alibis

4 teaching periods1. A. Lead In;

B. Listening & Reading;

C. Role Play.

2. D. Listening; E. Writing.

3. F. Group Work;

Grammar Focus:4. G. Listening;

H. Writing

Lesson 3Alexander the Great

Expressing opinion and the reasoning behind it.

Alexander the Great and military campaigns

3 teaching periods

1. A. Reading2. Project3. Self-

Assessment Test

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uNiT 7GoiNG BaCK iN Time Cover page p. 85Time: 5 minsAsk pupils to look at the pictures. The aim is to get pupils to speak about how things were different in the past.• Daily Life: What was different in how

people lived in the past? Get pupils to speak about how their families and how their grandparents lived, which is probably what they know best.

• Experiences: Entertainment was different in the past. Ask pupils what entertainment people had in place of TV.

• Historical Events: How did armies do battle with each other? In ancient Greece armies did not have guns. They fought with swords and spears.

• Changes: All the towns and cities were different in the past. How were they different?

• Listen and match to the numbers on the cover page.

TapesCripTOne hundred years ago people didn’t have cars. (with 2-A)In ancient Greece people went to the theatre. (with 1-B)The streets of Athens looked different one hundred years ago. (with 3-D) In ancient Greece people fought with swords and spears. (with 4-C)

lessoN 1Famous people oF The pasTaims of the lessona. To introduce the Simple Past of regular

verbs and how it is formed from the present for the affirmative form.

b. To introduce pupils on ways of making a presentation.

A. LEAD-IN PB page: 86 / Time: 10 mins→ Cross-curricular link: TheaTre (Θεατρική Αγωγή)• Can the children match the photos to the

numbers? Answers: 1b, 2d, 3c, 4a.• How many children have been to

Epidaurus? What do they know about Epidaurus? Can they guess how many people it can seat?

• Do any of the children know anything about Shakespeare? What do they know about him? Have they heard about The Globe Theatre? Can they guess what this might be?

B. READING PB page: 86/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: TheaTre (Θεατρική Αγωγή)pre-reading• Following on from the lead in, give some

geographical information about London, the Thames river (the London theatres in Shakespeare’s time were all on the South Bank), Stratford-upon-Avon. Give general information about the Elizabethan period. Compare and contrast to the 21ist century. See the following excellent website for information on Shakespeare’s Plays and Life and Times. http://www.bardweb.net See Cross-Cultural Corner in this unit for more information (ΤΒ p. 87).

• Ask pupils whether they have seen any of Shakespeare’s plays as films on TV.

• If not, read out some of Shakespeare’s most famous works and see if they ring a bell.

• Explain that The Globe Theatre still exists now as a replica. How do the pupils imagine the plays were performed? Did they have lights in that time? From the photo, were the people standing or sitting or both?

While-readingBe prepared to answer questions the pupils may have on Shakespeare. The aim is that the pupils should be able to have a first contact with this famous playwright and England during this period of the past. post-reading• Pupils should by now have an understanding

of the main themes of Shakespeare’s life:

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the period he lived in, his life, his plays, The Globe Theatre.

• In the first column pupils list main themes for a presentation. In the second column, the statements one would write about Shakespeare in order to prepare a presentation.

• Other possible topics for the first column: His tragedies, his comedies, his histories, Shakespeare on film and TV.

Differentiated Activities (*): Use Activity A, p. 145 to compile an easy chart with information about Shakespeare. For a more difficult reading, see the background text about the famous line from Hamlet, “To be or not to be”.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 42KeY Start-started; be-was; go-went; cry-cried; study-studied; stop-stopped; enjoy-enjoyed; have-had; give-gave; die-died; live-lived; love-loved; paint-painted; discover-discovered; write-wrote; meet-met; hate-hated; kill-killed; become-became; know-knew. 1. discovered; 2. was, was born, lived, met, became; 3. was, wrote, became; 4. was, painted, was, was, painted, knew, was, are, was; 5. loved, hated, killed. C. LISTENING PB page: 87/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p.10→ Cross-curricular link: TheaTre (Θεατρική Αγωγή)pre-listening• We are looking at Epidaurus and The

Globe Theatre in more detail. Check what pupils know about Epidaurus. Then make them read chart.

• Check what they know about The Globe. • Get them to predict the differences

between the two and to predict answers for the blank spaces in The Globe column.

While-listeningPupils are listening for specific information to fill in the blanks on the Globe Theatre:

number of seats, number of rows, whether the theatre was open or closed, what the theatre was made out of and its acoustics.TapesCripT

Welcome to The Globe Theatre! This theatre was built in 1599. Shakespeare was one of the owners of the original theatre.

This is a very close replica. It is a round structure and is made mainly out of wood. As you can see it has 3 rows of balconies. There is also a central courtyard where the stage is. It could hold 3,000 people.

The richer people had seats in the balconies. The poorer people instead did not have seats but stood in the central courtyard. As you can see, the stage is about one and half metres above the ground. This stopped the people in the courtyard from jumping onto the stage.

Because the central courtyard was uncovered, plays were performed only between May and September and because there was no artificial lighting they were performed in the early afternoons.

The acoustics were very poor and the actors and actresses had to shout their lines in order to be heard.

As in ancient Greece, because women were not allowed to perform, men performed women’s roles

The flag of the theatre showed Hercules carrying a globe – that was the logo of the theatre. The motto of the theatre was in Latin: “totus mundus agit histrionem” which means, “The whole world is a stage”.

The Theatre first opened with a performance of Shakespeare’s Julius Caesar. post listening• Answers for missing blanks in The Globe

column: Seats: 3000; Rows: 3; Open or closed: Open; Made out of: Wood; Acoustics: Poor.

• Pupils refer back to Comparatives of Unit 6 and write sentences comparing the 2 theatres.

Examples:- The acoustics were much better at

Epidaurus than at The Globe.- Epidaurus had many more seats than The

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Globe.- Both Epidaurus and The Globe were open

theatres.- Both in Elizabethan London and in Ancient

Greece, women’s roles were played by men.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 43KeY Romeo and Juliet

Grammar FoCusPB page: 88/Time: 10 mins/ TB Introduction p. 12 → Cross-curricular link: ART• The idea is to present the Past Tense

(affirmative) through a passage speaking about a famous person of the past, in this case the painter Domenikos Theokotopoulos, known as El Greco.

• Do your pupils know anything about El Greco? Elicit information. In which century did he live? Lived at the same time as Shakespeare, but in Southern Europe. Do they know where he painted most of his paintings?

• Focus on the verbs which speak about past events, which are highlighted. Focus on the form. Most end in –ed.

• Take pupils through the chart at the bottom of the page which shows the general rules on how to form, from the present tense, the past.

D. SPEAKING PB page: 89/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORYpre-speaking• Explain to your pupils you will now play

a guessing game. Put pupils into groups of 4-5. Each group will think of a famous person from Greek history and do some research, in secret, to find out more about them. Groups must not know each other’s famous persons.

• Wait till all groups have finished preparing their data.

While-speaking

Groups must guess each other’s famous person. One person makes statements. Each group receives a maximum of 10 yes or no’s depending on whether its statements correspond or not to the famous person. The group which guesses with the least statements is the winner.after speakingTeacher can review the affirmative form of the past tense.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 44KeY 1g, 2f, 3h, 4j, 5i, 6b, 7a, 8c, 9e, 10d.E. SPEAKING PB page: 89/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 11→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORYpre-speaking • Pupils in groups need to do research on

one of the 3 historical figures listed, which are part of the History classes for the 5th Dimotikou.

• Research can be done through their history books, encyclopaedias, the Internet.

• They must refer back to the main themes of the life of Shakespeare, earlier in this lesson.

• If they can, tell them to print out a portrait of the person they have chosen.

While-speaking• After they have set out their findings on

a large piece of cardboard, pupils present their findings: the period, the person, his achievements.

• Other groups should take notes for the discussion later.

post-speakingGet pupils to ask each other questions about these famous people. Questions could be to deepen knowledge of each historical period, what the famous persons really achieved and if in any way, how he changed the course of history. aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY D • p. 44KeY 1. playwright, tragedies, comedies, popular. 2. culture. 3. favour, artists, scientists. 4. poet. 5. Mediterranean.

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lessoN 2pasT eXperieNCesaims of the lessona. To teach the questions and negative forms

of the past simple.A. LEAD-IN PB page: 90/Time: 10 minsThis is to set the scene for the activities which follow in the unit. • Where: London and a police station• What: see if pupils have any ideas.

B. LISTENING & READING PB page: 90/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction pp. 9, 10 pre-listeningWhat questions might the policeman be asking Jack Smith?While-listeningPupils need to listen to the text twice, maybe 3 times.

TapesCripTPoliceman: So, Mr. Smith, were you in Central London yesterday afternoon?Jack: Yes, I was. You see, I work at a restaurant in Oxford Street.Policeman: Where were you at four o’ clock in the afternoon, then?Jack: I was at work.Policeman: Were you really? Your boss told us you were out.Jack: Hm, well yes, I was outside for a while…Policeman: What time did you leave the restaurant?Jack: Well, I don’t remember exactly, but I think it was at about 3.30.Policeman: I see. And what time did you get back?Jack: Well, first I went to a café to buy some donuts, then I met my boss’ s brother to give him some documents and then I went back to work…Policeman: What time did you arrive at the restaurant, then?Jack: Well, at about four, I guess….Policeman: But your boss said you didn’t get

back until five o’ clock, Mr. Smith! Jack: Well, I don’t know really, you see I didn’t have my watch on, so….Policeman: So where were you between half past three and five?Jack: Well, as I said before, I was at the café and then at my boss’s brother’s office…Policeman: How long did you stay in the office?Jack: Hm, for about forty-five minutes, I suppose…Policeman: But your boss’s brother told us you stayed in his office for only a couple of minutes!Jack: Well, yes, I stayed in his office for only a few minutes, but ….Policeman: But what, Mr. Smith?Jack: Well, you see, my girlfriend works in that office, so… I had a little chat with her…Policeman: A chat? How long did that chat last? One hour?Jack: Hm, you see, we also had a cup of coffee at a café nearby. Policeman: Mr. Smith, something in your story doesn’t make much sense, I’m afraid.Jack: But why? Why won’t you believe me? What’s wrong with some coffee? Can’t I have some coffee with my girlfriend for a change?post- listening• The wrong answer is the second. He never

agrees he got back at 5.• Ask the pupils if they think Jack is covering

something up.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 45KeY Where were you?Was someone else with you?What time did you get home?What did you do that evening?Did you hear anything strange?Did you go outside on your veranda?Did you see Mrs. Bullock that night? Did Mrs. Bullock tell you something was missing from her apartment?C. ROLE PLAY PB page: 91/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p.11

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• Matchings: 1e, 2a, 3d, 4f, 5c, 6b.• All pupils in pairs must be clear on who is

the policeman and who is Jack Smith.• Get pupils to focus on the questions forms

and also on the attitude of each character. The policeman should be authoritative and Jack maybe a little nervous.

• Monitor the pairs as they act out the dialogue.

• Get the best pair to act it out to the whole class at the end.

D. LISTENING PB page: 91/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening• From the picture pupils describe the

scene.• Instruct the pupils they need to put the

sentences in the right order to reconstruct the series of events when Jack was with his girlfriend, before the robbery.

• Pupils read through the sentences before listening.

While-listeningPupils listen to the text at least 3 times.TapesCripT- Thank you for coming at such short notice, Miss Adams.- Oh, you’re welcome, Sir. But what is this all about? Why did you want to see me?-Well, we’d like to ask you a few questions about what you did on Monday afternoon.- Oh, I see. You mean Monday 4th May, is that right?- Quite right, Miss Adams. So, where were you on Monday afternoon?- Well, I was at work of course.- Did you leave the office where you work by any chance?- Hm, yes, I did. You see, a friend of mine came by and… we went out for some coffee.- What time did you leave your office, Miss Adams?- Well, let me see…. Jack, I mean my friend, came by at about half past three and….- So, you left your office at half past three..- Hm, I’m afraid I can’t be sure. You see, Jack looked pretty moody, well, a bit worried and

I was worried, too. You see, his mother is in hospital and I thought something had happened to her, so…- And?- Well, I asked him what was wrong but Jack didn’t feel like talking, I’m afraid. He said he was tired, but I didn’t believe him.

Anyway, he suggested we go out for a cup of coffee. So we went out.- And where did you go?- We went to a café just opposite my office. It’s called “The Brown Corner”. It’s Jack’s favourite café and I really like it myself.- And then? How long did you stay there?- Not long, I’m afraid. Jack was silent, he was just staring at the walls, and… Then he did something really strange.- What?- Well, he stood up and said he had to leave. He disappeared before I even talked to him. Pretty strange, really. You see, Jack is usually talkative and nice. He tells jokes and we have a good laugh but last Monday he was a different person all together.- What time did Jack leave, Miss Adams?- Quarter to four, actually. He just rushed out of the café without saying a word. …. Anyway, what’s wrong? How come you ask me such questions? Is Jack all right? Is he sick or hurt by any chance?- Don’t worry, Miss Adams. Your friend is OK. It’s just Police routine…- I find it hard to believe it, I’m afraid.- Hm, thanks a lot for your time Miss Adams. Enjoy your evening.- Thank you. But where is Jack? Is he here?post-listening• Answers in this order: 5, 4, 7, 1, 3, 10, 2,

6, 9, 8.• Discuss with pupils whether this evidence

could go against Jack Smith.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 46KeY a. after “help him“ (line 6)

b. before “every year“ (line 5)c. after “bull“ (line 2)

E.WRITING

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PB page: 92/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 10pre-Writing• Pupils must refer back to both the previous

Listening as well as Jack’s statements on p. 78.

• They must find points where the two statements are the same or may differ.

While-WritingEnsure pupils are checking the texts carefully. The answers must be from the texts, not the pupils’ imagination.post-WritingThe answers, comparing against Jack’s “THENs” on p. 83:• Same: - He stayed in his boss’s brother office where

his girlfriend works only a few minutes.- He says he went out with his girlfriend.• Different: He says he stayed with Sue for a long time in the office, maybe one hour.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 46KeY With pupils work out correct path in drawing. F. GROUP WORK PB page: 92/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 11 • This can be done orally as an open

discussion.• We don’t know what happened between

3:45 and 5:00 and that is when he may have robbed the bank.

• Get the pupils to decide in their groups how they see what might have happened. Then they discuss as a class.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY D • p. 51Free answers. Sample answers p. 127.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 92/Time: 10 mins/ TB Introduction p. 12→ Cross-curricular link: ART• This is both a presentation and an activity

for the pupils to work on.

• As in the case of the earlier Grammar Focus, the presentation is done through a text. This is about another famous Greek painter, the icon painter Theophanis the Greek who lived for much of his life in Russia.

• Pupils read the text.• Elicit the negative and question forms

from the text.G. SPEAKING & LISTENING PB page: 93/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction pp. 10, 11pre-listening• Ask pupils where the scene is taking place.• Teach lexis: stocking, banknotes, tremble.• Pupils describe orally what happened.While-listeningPlay the tape. Aim is for the pupils to check whether Mrs White said something similar to the pupils’ description of the story. TapesCripTPoliceman (P): Now Mrs. White, you are here at the police station with us because we saw you on the close circuit TV camera tape. Mrs. White (W): Yes, I was at the bank when the robbery happened.P: What did you see?W: I was walking out and I saw the robber come in. P: Did he have anything over his face?W: Yes, he had a lady’s stocking. He looked mean! I was scared!!P: So you didn’t see his face.W: No I didn’t – not with that stocking covering it. P: Did he have a gun?W: Yes, he had a gun and he told everyone to stay still or else he’d shoot. I thought I was going to die!!P: How tall was he?W: About 6 feet.P: What did you do then?W: I froze – but I was trembling all over!P: What happened next?W: The robber went up to the cashier and asked for the contents of the safe.P: And then?W: There wasn’t a lot in the safe. He was disappointed! When the cashier gave him the

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money he ran out, taking off the stocking as he was going out. I wanted to trip him so he’d fall flat on his face!! Ha, ha, ha. P: Did you see his face?W: No, because he was already outside the main doors. P: Thanks for your help.post-listeningSee how many pupils were right?aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 7 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY E • p. 471. When was Shakespeare born?2. She discovered radium.3. Was Palamas a musician (or other artistic

occupation).4. When did Columbus discover America?5. He was a painter, known as El Greco.6. Where did Alexander the Great fight

most of his battles.7. When did Alexander die?8. No, Picassso painted Guernica.9. He discovered penicillin.10. Was Maria Callas famous?H. WRITING PB page: 93/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 10pre-WritingGive out the following clues for 3 different endings to different pupils:1. Mrs. White trips the bank robber; the

robber falls and spills the banknotes all over the floor.

2. Mrs. White beats the robber over the head with her handbag. The robber falls unconscious and is handcuffed by the police.

3. Mrs. White shouts out to everyone to attack the robber and the people in the bank seize the robber.

4. Allow pupils to come up with their own version if they wish to do so. The important aspect is that pupils should use their imagination.

While-WritingDiscreetly monitor pupils’ writing progress. post-WritingPupils read out their versions and discuss.

lessoN 3pasT eXperieNCesaims of the lessona. To learn to talk about famous leaders of the

past.A. READING PB page: 94/Time: 15 mins/ TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORYpre-reading• Review what pupils know about Alexander the Great.• Without looking at the map, can the pupils tell you where he travelled to between the ages of 22 and 33, when he died?• Now look at the map and take the pupils through the areas where Alexander travelled.• Can pupils think of examples of great leaders? Elicit what makes a great leader. • Explain difficult vocabulary items: murder, conquer, enemy, navy, tactics, targeted, withdraw, capture, causeway, march, settle. • Make sure pupils see there are 4 separate paragraphs, each with its own story and point to be made. While-readingGet pupils to work in pairs. Ensure they do not get bogged down by difficulties in vocabulary and syntax. Get them to focus on the meaning of each point.post-readingIn small groups, get pupils to choose one of the four statements and discuss amongst themselves what qualities of leadership Alexander displayed in the example. They then explain to the class.PROJECT PB page: 94/Time: 20 mins/ TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORY

A new “Famous Person from History” project.

Put pupils into different groups from Lesson 1 Ex. E.

Make sure the presentations are illustrated with drawings, photos etc.

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CulTural CorNerShakespeare: Background information for students

Shakespeare was an entertainer, someone who wrote to pull in a paying audience, many of whom could not read and write. In his day he was as popular as any TV series is today. Some of the stories in his plays he made up himself but mostly he adapted popular stories or events that people would have heard of. He spent his whole working life in London, writing for his living, and he was so successful that he was able to retire to a large house in Stratford-upon-Avon where he had grown up.

Human behaviour hasn’t changed much since Shakespeare’s time, even if clothes have changed. We don’t wear doublet and hose today, but we can still make jokes about people who wear anoraks or Armani. We may not make jokes about ostlers and franklins, but we laugh at comedians’ jokes about shop assistants or taxi drivers. There are people like Falstaff alive today, gross, idle, lazy drinkers who tell tall stories and try to impress women, especially those who have money. There are circ*mstances today in which someone may, like Isabella, face a situation where doing something they think is very wrong is the only way to help someone. Relations between men and women will always perhaps, involve the battles, doubts and differences we see between Beatrice and Benedick and Petruchio and Katharina. And surely, politicians will always be as subtle and devious as Shakespeare shows them in the extracts from Julius Caesar and Coriolanus.

Shakespeare didn’t write stage directions in his scripts. The scripts that have come down to us are nearly all copies of the actors’ scripts rather than his own director’s script. These often contained only the specific actor’s lines and cues, in case they fell into the wrong hands and a rival company put the play together and stole the audience. So you won’t find many directions in the margin of his scripts, other than “enter with a flourish”. He inserted subtle directions in a character’s speech such as “what bloody man is that” where a more

modern writer may write as a stage direction “Enter a man covered in blood as from a battle”. Shakespeare’s theatre

Most of the London theatres were on the south bank of the River Thames, outside the rules of the city of London. This was because theatres had gained a bad reputation - they encouraged people to take time off work, and they brought together crowds of people from different places, which meant that germs and disease could spread quickly.

For most of Shakespeare’s life, he wrote for an open-air theatre where the wealthiest people could pay for a seat, but others could choose to pay less and stand up. If you can, visit the replica of the Globe or look at some pictures of it to see how these conditions may have affected performance.

Shakespeare didn’t have modern aids such as microphones, lighting, moveable sets, mechanically operated curtains or any other devices to show a different setting. Actors needed big voices to ensure that they were heard, and audiences had to accept that the scene had changed when an actor said, “This castle hath a pleasant seat” or “So here is the forest at last”. Usually the end of a scene was indicated by a pair of rhyming lines, rather than by a curtain closing or lights going down. Women’s parts were acted by boy actors. This could make love scenes difficult, but most of Shakespeare’s love scenes involve talk rather than action, which must have been a relief to the actors!

Shakespeare and other actors shared in the profits of their acting company, so it was important to keep coming up with plays that brought in paying audiences. Shakespeare wrote plays to suit audiences who liked romances, historical events, weepy stories and plays full of comic characters and comic scenes. In other words, he made it his business to appeal to every kind of theatregoer so that they would pay to see his plays rather than the plays at the theatre down the road.

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UNIT 8 all aBouT sTories

pupil’s BooKpp. 97-108

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1Fairy Tales

Learning to tell stories and act. Also learning to express own feelings through drama.

Using the Past Continuous in order to talk about past events that were going on for some time

Vocabulary related to:a) kinds of

books & stories

b) adjectives describing characters and appearance

c) weatherd) theatre

Fairy Tales: The Princess and the Pea.

Karagiozis and Shadow Puppet theatre.

Making one’s own puppet and stage.

Alibis

Easter Customs in Greece, Norway, Mexico and other countries.

4 teaching periods

1. A. Lead In;B. Reading;

C. Reading & Writing; D. Writing.2. Grammar

Focus; E. Listening;

F. Writing.3. G. Act Out.4. Project.

Lesson 2 What an experience!

Learning to relate your experiences and express your feelings about them. How to retell a story. Organizing a written short story.

Using both Simple Past and Past Continuous forms to talk about past events and experiences.

Adjectives expressing feelings. Cohesive features relevant to telling stories.

3 teaching periods

1. A. Lead In;B. Reading;

C. Reading & Writing; D. Speaking.2. E. Listening; F. Speaking.3. G. Writing.

Lesson 3A traditional story

Talk about Easter customs in your country. Compare with other countries.

Use of Past tenses in story reading and story writing

Vocabulary related to Easter customs.

2 teaching periods

1. A. Reading & Speaking2. Project

Self-Assessment Test

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uNiT 8all aBouT sTories Cover page p. 97Time: 3 mins

Allow pupils to look at the title of the Unit for a few seconds. Ask them to tell you what a “story” is and what kind of stories they know. Invite pupils to look at the cover page and initiate discussion about story reading and story telling. Ask them to talk about their experiences of story telling and identify the situations presented in the pictures. Prompt them so that they talk about bedtime stories or grand parents’ stories at home as well as story telling in class with their teacher or at a bookshop with a storyteller or author of children’s book. Make them express their feelings for these situations. Additionally, challenge them to think of reasons for extensive reading (e.g. for information, for pleasure, etc). Then ask them to read the bubbles and make guesses about the kind of books people read in each situation.

Examples of questions: “What is a Story?” “What could a story

be about?”, “Do you know any stories in Greek / in English?”, “Have your parents / grandparents/ teachers / writers / ….ever read any stories for you?”, “What was it like?”, “Do you like reading stories?”, “Do you like others reading / telling you stories?”, “Why yes / no?”, “Have you ever acted out a story with your friends?”, “If the answer is yes, what did you like best?”, etc.

You could also pre-teach some of the vocabulary necessary for the next chapters.• Listen and match the sentences with the

photos on the cover page. TapesCripT1. He drew his sword and killed the monster. 2. While the detective was walking along

the busy avenue, he noticed someone was following him.

3. When the little girl saw the wolf, she rushed to the front door.

lessoN 1FairY Tales

aims of the lessona. To familiarize pupils with the stories and

various types of books.b. To make pupils use their imagination

creatively and think about possible continuation or ending of stories.

c. To teach vocabulary related to stories, fairy tales, drama and theatre (drama)

d. To teach Past Simple and Past Progressive verb forms to be used in narration of stories.

e. To familiarize pupils with dramatization techniques and engage them in creative collaborative work so as to increase motivation and “learning by doing”.

f. To make pupils use stories and drama in order to act out their own play or organize a puppet show.

g. To help pupils incorporate their limited experience of drama from first language into foreign language learning.

A. LEAD IN: I LOVE READING!PB page: 98/Time : 5-7 mins → Cross-curricular link: Literature, LanguageInitiate discussion on books and reading for pleasure. Make sure that pupils know the difference between the latter and reading for school. Then, have them answer the question in Activity A. The use of L1 is expected here. Pre-teach necessary vocabulary: fairy tale, novel, detective story, science fiction story, comic, poetry, adventure story, mystery, etc. You could use actual books, pictures, or drawings. Distinguish between reference books, encyclopaedias, history books, atlases, magazines, etc.KeY Free AnswersaCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY A • p. 48KeY 1. c , 2. e , 3. d , 4. a , 5. b B. READING: THE BEGINNING OF A FAIRY

TALEPB pages: 98/Time: 10-15 mins/TB Introduction p. 9pre-readingTell pupils that they are going to read the first part of a story. Ask them to read the

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips90

questions a) and b). Also ensure that they know the following lexis: queen, king, prince, princess, castle, kingdom, servants and the expression: Once upon a time.While-readingLet pupils read the text and elicit answers for questions a) and b) above. It is quite possible that pupils already know the story of the “Princess and the Pea”. Yet, more than one title could be proposed. Accept pupils’ ideas as long as they correspond to the content of the story so far.post-reading• Ask pupils to underline or highlight all

adjectives in the text. They will need them for the next activity. Suggested answers: handsome (men) – beautiful, pretty (women), real / true, clever, sensitive, important, special, easy, sad, lonely, dark, terrible, dreadful, scared, awful.

• Teach unknown adjectives using a combination of techniques such as through picture prompts, miming, synonyms, antonyms, or definitions in English.

• Also, help pupils with weather words: storm, lightning, thunder, rain and their collocations: (v) to flash, (v) to boom, (v) to pour, etc. Expand vocabulary.

C. A FAIRY TALE: THE STORY UNFOLDSPB page: 87/Time: 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 9• Let pupils work in pairs in order to complete

task a). The main characters so far are: the King, the Queen and the Prince. Help them with adjectives they have met in Activity C or encourage them use others they may know and which would describe their characters more accurately. The adjectives should deal with appearance and traits of character.For example: The king: old, wise, worried.

• Encourage the use of pupils’ imagination and ask the most talented to draw their heroes in the boxes provided.

D. WRITINGPB page: 99/Time: 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 10• The pupils think discuss what they imagine

happened.• List of possible lexis to be used in the

writing activity.• Sequence the events.• Then write them in sentences.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 100/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12 aims: to teacha. Past Progressive tense (Form) - Positive, Interrogative and Negative

Forms - Yes / No Answersb. Past Progressive tense (Use) Used for past events that were going on

for some time in English• Invite pupils to look at the Grammar

Section of this lesson. Ask them to study the examples and elicit how this past tense is formed. Write the following table on the blackboard and ask them to copy it in their notebooks so that they can refer to it whenever necessary:

was / were + verb + ing• Explain to them that this is the structure

we should use when we refer to events that were taking place at a certain time in the past.

• Ask the pupils to look back at the text (Activity C, pages 98-99) and underline or highlight all Past Progressive structures. Then ask them to identify their function.

• Finally, ask them to write 1-2 sentences about what they were doing the previous evening / Saturday/ Sunday afternoon at …… o’ clock

• Ask pupils to present their sentences to the rest of their colleagues and check how many were doing similar things.

• For further practice ask them to do the following activities at the Activity Book or set them as homework.

E. A FAIRY TALE - THE ENDINGPB page: 100/Time: 10 – 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: Literature, Language

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pre- listening• Ask pupils to look at the bubble (page 99)

and let them predict how the story might end.

• Pre-teach the words mattress, pea, tired, to get married. Use the pictures as prompts.

• Then ask them to read the instructions and check they know what they have to do.

While-listeningPlay the tape / CD twice. Pupils listen and put numbers under the pictures.TapesCripT

A beautiful young girl was standing outside. Rainwater was running down her hair and clothes and she was shivering with cold.

The King asked her to come inside and took her to the warm room where the Queen and the Prince were waiting. The Prince fell in love when he saw the beautiful girl. She said she was a true princess.

“Well, we’ll soon find out”, thought the Queen.

She went into the bedroom and asked the servants to prepare a bed for the night. Then, she put a tiny green pea on the bottom of the bed.

“Bring more mattresses!”, she ordered the servants.

And, that night, the princess slept on top of twenty mattresses and twenty thick duvets.

In the morning the Queen asked, “Did you sleep well, my dear?”.

“No”, she groaned. “There was something hard in the bed and I didn’t sleep at all. I’m black and blue all over!”.

Now the Queen knew. She smiled and told her son, “Only a real princess can have such delicate skin.”

“A real princess at last!”, gasped the Prince. “My search is over!”.

And so the Prince married the princess. As for the pea, it was put in a museum. It’s still there, unless someone has stolen it. KeY 1. F, 2. A, 3. B , 4. D , 5. E , 6. Cpost-listening• In pairs, pupils check their answers.• For more practice: Activity book

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY B • p. 48 NOTE: Photocopy this grid for your pupils.

V B R M H P E A C T

C D S E R R U Y A P

W X Z P R I N C S A

O Q U E E N K F T E

T Z A W N C X C L K

M A T T R E S S E I

E A Z W T S L T L N

U O Y T M S N O V G

S E R V A N T R T D

G J R A I N O M N P

KeY pea, castle, queen, prince/princess, king, servant, rain, storm, mattressDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES • p. 79 KeY Adjectives Good: handsome, beautiful, pretty, real, true, clever, important, special, easy.Bad: sad, lonely, dark, terrible, dreadful, scared, awfulGood & Bad: special, tinySentences: Free AnswersaCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY C • p. 49KeY1. c , 2. a , 3. a , 4. b , 5. a , 6. b , 7. c , 8. cPupils can find some information in the “Anthologio” book, page 149.For extra activity ask them to do the next task. They could get relevant information from the “Anthologio” book (pages 276, 87) and the following websites: http://andersenfairytales.com/en/mainDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES • p. 80aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY D – p. 50KeY 1. c , 2. e , 3. a , 4. d , 5. b Title: Alice’s Adventures in WonderlandDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES • p. 81F. A FAIRY TALE: GETTING READY TO ACT

IT OUTPB page: 101 / Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 11 → Cross-curricular link: Literature,

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Language, Drama (Theatriki Agogi), Music, Arts

• Help pupils form groups of 4. Explain to them that they can choose any scene from the fairy tale and take on a role. They have already used adjectives which more or less describe each character in the story. They should make their characters act the way they have described it.

• Offer your help whenever necessary.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY E – p. 50KeY 1.was helping , 2. were playing , 3. was preparing , 4.were sitting, 5. were standing , 6. were watchingDIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES • page 82G. A FAIRY TALE: ACT IT OUTPB page: 101/Time: 10- 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: Drama (Θεατρική

Αγωγή) • First help them prepare their puppet.

You could have asked them to bring the necessary material beforehand

• Necessary materials: scissors, coloured pens, glue, magazines, wool, fabric, drinking straws, etc. or any other material pupils might find appropriate for their character.

• Instruct them to tape the back of the puppet to the end of a drinking straw once they have completed it. Then it will be ready and they could use it to put on the play.

• You could help them make a tiny theatre using an empty cardboard box with a bottom as big as you would like your screen to be. Cut out a rectangular hole on the bottom using a graphic artist’s blade or scissors. This will be the stage of the theatre.

• Using coloured construction paper or fabric draw and cut out curtains for your theatre. Glue the curtains to the box. (Figure 2) Go to pages 97-98 for more information.

• Put the tiny stage on a desk and the pupils could hide behind the desk while they

move their puppets on the “stage”• For more ideas and information you could

consult the following resources:• http://www.osv.org/kids/crafts2.htm• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/

crafts/puppets/theater/• http://www.enchantedlearning.com/

crafts/puppets/styrostraw/• http://homeschooling.gomilpitas.

com/ explore/puppets.htm

BiBlioGraphYMaley, A. & Duff, A., 1978.Drama Techniques in Language Learning, Cambridge, CUP.Phillips, S., 1999.Drama with Children. Oxford, Oxford University Press.OXFORD BASICS & OXFORD BASICS FOR CHILDREN. A series of short, accessible books for teachers who are new to ELT or who are looking for creative ways of teaching with limited resources.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 1 • ACTIVITY F • p. 51 KeY 2. were you painting? / I was painting until

9 o’clock at night.3. did you have? / I had a rest4. did you use? / I used my (electric)

hairdryer5. did the lights go off? / As soon as I

finished drying my hair6. Did you see? / No she didn’t (see

anyone)7. did you do ? / She called the police.Note: It is advisable to help students with vocabulary. ( e.g. to have a rest, hairdryer, etc)KEY TO MYSTERIOUS THEFT: The artist said that she used the hairdryer to dry her hair while there was no electricity at home!!!DIFFERENTIATED ACTIVITIES • p. 82H. WRITE A PLAY AND PERFORM A PUPPET

SHOWPB page: 101/Time: 15 - 20 mins / TB

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Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: Drama (ΘΕΑΤΡΙΚΗ

ΑΓΩΓΗ) • Organize the class in groups of 5-6 pupils.

Make sure that each group is formed by mixed ability pupils.

• Let them read the instructions and decide which project they would like to work on.

• Each group should appoint one member who would be the director of the play or the puppet show. This person should give directions and control the whole production.

• Another thing you must remind them to do is to have one person who will keep notes of everything they do – dialogues, material needed, ideas for prompts, etc.

• You should move around and always praise what they are doing. Accept their ideas and offer yours when you think they are needed.

• Encourage the shy pupils to take a more active part in the play or help the more competent pupils realize that all pupils have talents which could prove useful for the completion of the task. For example, some members could choose the music or they could draw the scenery. They could either bring a toy castle or prepare the mattresses for the scenery. It is very important for all pupils to feel secure and try this task.

• You could take photos of the preparation stage or either videotape it. You could use it to offer feedback to the groups before the final performance or you could leave the pupils watch it and offer suggestions for improvements – peer instruction.

• Not only the process but also the final product would be very important for pupils. So you could organize a performance for other classes at school or for their parents.

• If that is not so easy to do you could either take photos of the performance and put them on the school notice board or make copies of a video tape or a DVD you,

yourself, could prepare. You could ask help from a colleague or the parents.

• You could work on similar projects throughout the year and organize a school performance at the end of the year.

lessoN 2WhaT aN eXperieNCe!aims of the lessona. To make pupils talk about past experiences

and express their feelings about them.b. To help them organize the events in

sequence by using appropriate verb forms – Past Simple and Progressive as well as relevant to context cohesive features.

c. To help them re tell a story.d. To encourage writing a short story.A. LEAD IN: GETTING SCAREDPB page: 102/Time: 3 minsInitiate discussion. Help pupils relate their experiences either in L2 or even L1. Help with necessary vocabulary and grammatical structures but do not expand on them.B. READINGPB pages: 102/Time : 10 - 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 9pre-reading• Ask pupils to have a look at the drawings

and let them work with a partner in order to describe what they think is happening.

• Let them predict the sequence of events.While-reading• Pupils need to focus on finding the correct

order of events.• Let pupils work with their partner to do

the task. In case they ask about difficult words, make them guess their meaning from the context. The words in bold will be clarified in the next activity.

post-reading• Let different pairs compare results and ask

some of them to report to the class.• Encourage discussion about the sequence

of events and do not offer solution from the beginning. Ask them to explain the reasons for their choice.

KeY a1, b2, d3, c4, e5.

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C. USEFUL WORDS TO RETELL THE STORYPB page: 103/Time: 7 -8 mins/TB Introduction p. 13• Explain to pupils that when one has to

retell a story they might need some of the vocabulary used in the original text. So, they should work independently on unknown vocabulary, which is something that they should do when they read for pleasure.

• So, use the class dictionary / -ies and show pupils how they could work with them in order to find meaning of unknown words or phrases. (You could have asked them to bring their own dictionaries in the previous lesson. It would be a good opportunity to show them that they need to have one and propose a few titles that would suit their needs at this level).

• Let pupils work in pairs and do the activity. They could write on their notebooks.

• Ask some pairs to report to the rest of the class.

• Give feedback. Praise all pupils for their good work and effort.

KeY 1b, 2d, 3e, 4c, 5a, 6f.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY A • p. 52 KeY 1. B, 2. A, 3. C, 4. B, 5. A, 6. C.D. I WAS FRIGHTENEDPB page: 103/Time: 5 mins/TB Introduction p. 13• Allow pupils to discuss the questions

in groups. First they should look at the questions. Then make guesses about the answers.

• Challenge the members in each group to discuss and make comments on choices.

• Make them think of various kinds of jokes they played on others or vice versa. Ask them to discuss reactions.

• Let pupils make suggestions about what kind of humour is acceptable, dangerous, silly, cruel, etc.

• Organize a class discussion. Use of L1 is also expected at this stage.

E. THE BROWNS AND THE GUNSHOTPB page: 104/Time: 5-7 mins/TB Introduction

p. 10pre-listening• Set the scene of the incident and

familiarize pupils with the setting and police procedures. Ask them to talk about the pictures – in this way they will be prepared for some of the vocabulary items they are going to listen in the tapescript.

• Choose any word or phrase from the tapescript you think that should be pre taught. (E.g. Officer, colleague, Chinese meal, gunshot, co-operation, etc.)

• Check that they understand the instructions.

While-listening• Play the tape / CD once.• Pupils do the task.TapesCripT

- So, Mr. Brown. I’m afraid I have to ask you and your family a few questions about the other night. Is that all right with you?

- Yes, of course, Officer. What would you like to know?

- Well, my colleagues and I need to know where you were last Tuesday evening.

- I see. Well, I was at home.- Hm, and were you alone in the house?- No, the whole family were here. Except

for my father, that is…. He’s in Spain at the moment…

- I see. And what were you doing, Mr. Brown?

- Hm, I think I was watching TV.- No, daddy, you weren’t. It was your turn

to do the cooking, remember?- Oh, yes, you’re quite right, dear. Sorry,

Officer. I wasn’t watching TV, I was cooking my specialty, a splendid Chinese meal…

- Hm, I see. How about you, young man? What’s your name?

- I’m Charles.- And what were you doing when the you

heard the gunshot?- Well, I was in the kitchen with Daddy….

I think I was helping him with dinner…. Oh, no, I was feeding our dog cat, Sir… You see, it loves Chinese food herself…

- Oh, that’s strange. Now, let me ask you,

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Mrs. Brown. Were you in the kitchen, too?- No, I was in the living room. I was

watching a documentary on whales… It was so interesting that I was absolutely absorbed by it, so when I heard the gunshot I jumped up with terror… It was awful, just awful, Officer….

- I’m sure it was. Now, how about this lovely little girl… Who are you?

- I’m Angela. I was at home, too. I was talking on the phone and…

- And what?- Well, I got so scared… I ran to Mummy

the moment I heard the bang…- I see. How about you, now? You must

be Sam, right?- Yes, that’s right, Sir.- What were you doing, Sam? Were you

cooking or watching TV?- Neither, Sir. I was in my bedroom, reading

a detective story…- Ha, ha… Anyway, that will be all. Thank

you all for your co-operation. Sorry to bother you so late in the evening…

- No problem, Officer. By the way, Sam is cooking tonight. He’s cooking an Indian dish, his speciality. Would you like to try it?

- Thank you so much. That’s very kind of you, but I’m afraid we really must go. You see, we need to see your neighbours, too. Enjoy your meal.

- Thank you. Goodnight.Play the tape / CD again and ask pupils to check their answers.KeY 1. Charles Brown, 2. Angela Brown, 3. Mr. Paul Brown, 4. Mrs. Diana Brown, 5. Sam Brownpost-listeningIn pairs pupils check their choices.

Grammar FoCusPB page: 104/Time: 10 mins/TB Introduction p. 12 aims: to teacha. How the two Past tenses combine in

order for the speakers to be able to refer to past experiences

b. Remind them of the form and uses of

the two Past tenses as they have been presented so far.

c. Ask them to guess how these tenses relate.

d. Refer to the relationship of the two Past tenses: the Past Progressive which was going on and was “interrupted” by other past actions in Past Simple tense form.

e. The following diagram can be drawn on the blackboard to represent the relationship of the two Past forms:

a car crashed

NPAST O FUTURE W

While I was waiting… f. Finally, refer to the use of “when” and

“while” when combining the two tenses. Ask them, finally, to draw in the box.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY B • p. 53KeY 9.15: What did she do at 9.15? - She left the hotel, / 10.00: What did she do at 10.00? - She met the General Manager at the Central Bank, / 11.00: What was she doing at 11.00? – She was discussing some economic matters, / 13.00: What was she doing at 13.00? – She was having lunch with her British colleagues, / 14.00: What did she do at 14.00? / She returned to the hotel, / 14.30: What was she doing at 14.30? – She was packing up her luggage,/ 16.00: What was she doing at 16.00? – She was going to the Airport by taxi.aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 2 • ACTIVITY C • p. 54KeY1. While, 2. when/ as soon as , 3. While, 4. when / as soon as, 5. while, 6. when, 7. When/ as soon as, 8. While , 9. when, 10. WhileF. PART OF A STORYPB page: 105/Time: 10 - 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 11• In pairs or groups of 3-4 the pupils read

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the instructions and then they discuss how the story evolves.

• Challenge them to add any other information they find appropriate or relevant to their story.

• Offer ideas and your help with vocabulary items when asked for it. Make sure they use L2 while doing the task.

• Invite brainstorming regarding endings for the story. Advise them to make use of the unexpected element or funny incidents so common in stories.

• Accept all proposed versions and have pupils present them to the rest of their classmates.

• Encourage talented pupils to draw the final picture(s) of the story.

Differentiated Pedagogy (*): For a different version direct pupils to Appendix, page 145, Activity A. Help less competent pupils do the activity using a dictionary or offer your help.G. WRITE A SHORT STORYPB page: 105/Time: 10 – 15 mins/TB Introduction p. 10• Ask pupils to read the instructions and

make sure that they have understood what they have to write and who for. Explain to them that the “audience” is very important when we write because they determine the register and style of what we write. Here, they must use semi-formal styles the “audience” will be young readers of an international magazine.

• Move around the groups of pupils working on the task and offer help and advice.

• Another option would be to set the task as Homework.

• In all cases, display the stories after they have been checked and put them on the classroom notice board.

lessoN 3a TraDiTioNal sTorYaims of the lessona. To familiarize pupils with various texts

dealing with Easter.b. To compare past and present traditions in

Greece and abroad.

c. To engage pupils in collaborative writing of a story.

A. EASTER DAYPB page: 106 / Time: 15 – 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 11pre-reading• Invite pupils to present what they know

about Easter in Greece. Ask them to present ways they celebrate Easter Day at home.

• Invite other pupils coming from other countries in the world to talk about relevant customs in their customs.

• Pre-teach relevant vocabulary – see texts.While-reading• Pupils read the three texts and are asked

to answer some comprehension questions. E.g. – text 1: “What do they know about the writer, Alexandros Papadiamantis?”, “Why did Papa-Kyriakos go to Kalyvia?”, “What happened inside the church?”, “What were the grown-ups doing during the Easter meal?” etc.

• Ask pupils to read the next two texts and keep notes about customs in other countries.

post-reading• Let pupils use their notes and in pairs

discuss what they have found in the texts. They should refer to things they find strange, funny, interesting, sad, etc.

• Then direct them to the Appendix, pages 146-148, and assign different texts to different pupils. They exchange information after reading their texts.

• Finally, they report to the class expressing their feelings: which customs they like best and why.

aCTiViTY BooK: UNIT 8 • LESSON 3 • ACTIVITY A • p. 54KeY Free Activity. It encourages further reading.CROSS-CURRICULAR PROJECTPB page: 106/Time: 30 mins/TB Introduction p. 15. See appendix p. 148.→ Cross-curricular link: Language• Let pupils form groups and choose which

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project they would like to do.• Ask them to decide on the theme and

who is going to do what. They should keep notes.

• Remind them of structures and vocabulary items they used before.

• Advise them to accept others’ ideas and suggestions.

• Their works could be presented in class or their written products could be displayed on the classroom walls..

DRAMATB Introduction p. 11

Drama in the ELT classroom is not only about the product (the performance at the end of the year) but an integral part of the process of language learning. “Dramatizing” is the best term for referring to the process of the learner’s active involvement in a text. Dramatization is useful as it offers:- Motivation - Familiar activities- Confidence- Group dynamics- Catering for different learning styles- Language personalization- Language in context- Cross-curricular content- Change of the pace in the lessonMaking a Screen

This can be done in many ways, but one of the easiest is as follows: Find an empty cardboard box with a bottom as big as you’d like your screen to be (say 12-by-18-inches, or so!). Turn the box up side down and draw a line (with a pencil, pen, or marker) 1 1/2 inches in from three edges and 2 1/2 inches in from what will become the bottom edge (see dotted line on Figure 1).

Cut the cardboard out from the middle of the frame, using a utility knife, graphic artist’s blade, or scissors (let the adult handle the sharp tools!). Next, draw lines on the sides of the box as shown in Figure 2. Use a knife or scissors to cut along the lines to remove the top, front, and bottom sides of the box. (You now have a theater frame

with “wings!”)

Find a piece of white cloth - like a handkerchief or a piece of an old sheet--big enough to cover the opening in the frame. Use masking tape or duct tape to fasten the comers of the cloth over the back of the frame opening (Figure 3). When the corners are tight and there are no wrinkles, put tape along all the edges. (It’s important to keep the screen tight and wrinkle-free!)

Set your screen up on a table edge as shown in Figure 4 and position a chair or short table so you can set up an unshaded light (or even a floodlight) as shown.

Making Shadow Puppets These can be simple stick figures or puppets with articulated limbs. For a stick figure simply draw (or trace) the outline of a character (a man with a cane, a woman wearing a hat, a roaring lion, whatever) onto thin but stiff cardboard, and then cut the figure out. You can cut characters out of magazine or newspaper photos and trace them onto cardboard, but remember to leave extensions below the feet for the puppeteer to hold; or you can glue light wooden extensions your cardboard puppets.

To make an articulated puppet, cut out two cardboard versions of the same

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character. Use the second one to cut out just the leg (or arm) you want to move. Punch a hole through both the full puppet and the limb. Put a brass paper fastener, through both pieces and spread the prongs. Practice “walking” with your puppet by moving the hinged leg back and forth.

Think of all the puppet characters you can make with hinged legs or arms or jaws, from

kids and clowns to horses and alligators. You’re limited only by your imagination! Showing Your Shadows

Set your theater up with a lamp a few feet behind your screen. Sit on a short stool or kneel on the floor at point B to operate your puppets. (NOTE: You might want to put a tablecloth or drape over the table front to hide your actions from the audience.) Hold your puppets up at point A and the audience (at point D) will see the shadows on the other side of the screen. As in most theaters, turning out unnecessary room lights will help the audience focus on the on-screen action.

Find or make up a fun story script and create as many puppets as it takes to tell the story. You can create shadow scenery too - including trees, buildings, bridges, and anything else with a recognizable shadow shape. You can tape the scenery pieces in place - to the chair or the back of the screen, wherever they need to be between the light and the screen.

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UNIT 9 amaZiNG people aND plaCes

pupil’s BooKpp. 109-120

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1She has helped save gorillas!

Being able to express oneself about achievements in the past, which impact the present, without giving specific time.

Present Perfect: Affirmative Form.

Gorillas

Mikis Theodorakis, his life and achievements

Dian Fossey and the African Mountain Gorillas

Mikis Thoedorakis

The Hellenic Mountaineering Organisation

Dubai, its location, attractions and social norms.

The Caltex Children’s Art Competition in Ireland

How to put together a class newspaper

4 teaching periods1. A. Lead-In;

B. Reading; Grammar Focus.

2. C. Writing & Speaking; D. Listening. 3. E. Speaking; F. Portfolio. 4. Project

Lesson 2 A Trip to Dubai

Present Perfect: Negative and Question Forms.

Adverbs frequently used with Present Perfect Form

Modern cities and their attractions.

Art competitions.

3 teaching periods1. A. Lead-In;

B. Listening; C. Vocabulary.

2. Grammar Focus; D. Reading.

3. E. Writing; F. Game.

Lesson 3Newspapers and headlines

Newspaper terminology.

4 teaching periods1. A. Lead-In; Game.2. & 3. Project.4. Self-

Assessment Test.

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CoVer paGePage: 109/Time: 5 mins. • Ask pupils to look at the pictures. These

are representative of the main topics of this unit.

• Dubai: Make sure the children know where Dubai is. (In the Middle East) It’s a popular holiday destination, especially for people from Greece. What do the pupils think tourists do there? (Visit the desert, go shopping, enjoy different types of food). What is the weather like? (Very hot – so air conditioning is everywhere). What are the hotels like? (Very luxurious – the only 7-star hotel in the world is in Dubai). What are the social customs like? (They are typical Arab social customs – see Cultural Corner). How are the local people dressed? (In light cotton robes – typical Arab dress).

• Gorillas: Where do these animals live? (In the mountains of Central Africa). Why are they so interesting to us? Because among all the animals of the world, they are closest to us human beings). Do pupils think there are many gorillas in the world? (Not many and they was fear of them being extinguished). Outside of Africa, who is interested in gorillas? (The zoos in America and Europe)

• Listen and matchTapescriptBoy 1: I’ve never been to the Himalayas that

stretch across Butan, China, India, Nepal, Pakistan and Afghanistan.

Boy 2: Dian Fossey has helped save gorillas in Africa… in Congo.

Girl: Mark and Ben have been to Dubai, one of the seven United Arab Emirates.

lessoN 1 – she has helpeD saVe Gorillas!aimsa. Presentation of the Present Perfect: Affirmative form.A. LEAD IN Page: 110/Time: 10 mins

→ Cross-curricular link: SCIENCE• Give the pupils some information about

gorillas.• Did they know the story about a famous

London zoo female gorilla that a few years ago, because her male partner had died, spent several weeks weeping? Many Londoners visited London Zoo to grieve with her. It shows how close gorillas are to human beings.

• Do the pupils find gorillas amusing, interesting, why?

• Have they seen films about gorillas? How were gorillas portrayed?

• Have they seen the movie “King Kong”? How was the gorilla portrayed there?

B. READING Page: 110/Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: SCIENCEpre-reading:• Continuing on from the Cover Page, you

can give pupils some information on Dian Fossey. She was a naturalist who in the 1967 moved to Africa from San Francisco and dedicated her life to the protection of the mountain gorillas between Rwanda and Congo. The gorillas were under threat of extinction from poachers. Explain “poachers”. In 1985 she was murdered in her cabin in the African mountains – the crime is still unresolved.

• Discuss the role of zoos. Have pupils been to a zoo? Maybe those from Attiki have been to Spata. How do zoos obtain their animals? This story explains how zoos used to obtain animals in the past. On most occasions they used to be obtained illegally or unethically.

• Ask the pupils what they might learn from this story.

• Comprehension questions:♦ Where did Dian Fossey work? ♦ Who wanted baby gorillas?♦ How did other countries get baby

gorillas?♦ Did Dian Fossey stop all baby gorillas

leaving Africa?

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While-reading• Pupils read on their own.• Answer questions on any difficult

vocabulary• Pinpoint to pupils where Dian Fossey

worked on world map at the end of PB.post-reading• What more have the pupils learnt from

this story?• Do they think the work of Dian Fossey was

important?• Do they think gorillas are safe now? KeY to True/False: 1. True, 2. False, 3. False, 4. False, 5. True.

Grammar FoCus Page: 111/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• Study the forms in the examples and

deduce how the Present Perfect is formed.

• Point out the meaning of this tense is quite unique to English. In Greek it indicates a simple past meaning. In English it usually indicates finished events connected to the present.

• It is often used with adverbs of time such as since, yet, already, never, ever etc.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY A – p. 55KeY1. He has flown many different spaceships2. He has travelled to a lot of galaxies.3. He has had 39 children.4. He has written 46 e-books.5. he has met a lot of interesting creatures.C. WRITING & SPEAKING

Page: 112/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction pp. 10, 11pre-WritingElicit from pupils whether they have done some important things in their lives. While-WritingPupils must try to use the Present Perfect. This is best achieved if they avoid specifying the moment in time in the past when they completed their action.

after-WritingPupils share their experiences with their classmates and they can find out more about their fellow pupils.aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY B – p. 55KeY1. How long has Lina lived in Paris?2. How long have you known James?3. How long have you parents been in

Singapore?4. How long has Philip been a fireman?5. How long have you had a motorbike?6. How long has your brother lived in

Dubai?7. How long have Lima and Jerry been

married?DiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY p. 83Same replies.D. LISTENING Page: 112/Time: 10 / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORYpre-listening• Elicit from pupils what they know about

Mikis Theodorakis. • For which film did he win the Oscar for its

music? Have the pupils seen the film?• What do they know about his political

struggles? While-listening• Pupils confirm what they know or don’t

know about Mikis Theodorakis.TapescriptMikis Theodorakis is known worldwide for his music for the film Zorbas the Greek but he has written many pieces of Greek classical and classical/traditional music.He has been universal symbol in the fight against any form of dictatorship.He has received several offers to serve as president of Greece.He has been in the foreground of the Greek musical scene for the past 60 years.He has been active throughout his life to increase awareness on human rights, the environment and the need for peace.He continues to be a symbol of Greece in the

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Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips102

world.post-listening• Summaries orally the importance of Mikis

Theodorakis to Greece. • Pupils write 2-3 sentences about Mikis

Theodorakis to confirm the importance of this figure for Greece and the rest of humanity.➤ Mikis Theodorakis has written

internationally famous film music, for example for “Zorbas the Greek”

➤ M. T. has been a symbol for the fight of nations against dictatorship.

➤ M.T. has been a key figure to represent the struggle of nations for human rights and peace.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY C – p. 56Free answers. Sample answers p. 127.E. SPEAKINGpre-speaking• The pupils need to do some research at

home, with their families. Grandparents are a good source of interesting information, sometimes stories which the children could have never imagined!

• Get the pupils to spend time with their grandparents or, if not in the same city, to call them up saying they are doing some research for their English classes.

• Pupils need to find stories of achievements and bring these stories back to class.

While-speakingPupils share their stories with each other, first in small groups and then, we suggest, the most interesting should be shared with the whole class.post-speakingTeacher should draw morals from the best stories. She should present such people and their actions as models of good, upright living, beneficial to people around us and society in general!F. PORTFOLIO Page: 113/Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 14• This is a good activity for pupils to

appreciate how important a positive contribution to the school community is.

• First the pupils think about their personal achievements and what they want to be remembered for.

• Then the teacher should move it to a classroom level.

• The classroom achievements should be put up on a poster, something for the class to be proud of.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY D – p. 56KeY1. Have you ever been to the USA?2. Have you ever played tennis?3. have you ever ridden a horse?4. have you ever been to a Chinese

restaurant?5. Have you ever travelled by train?6. Have you ever won a lot of money?7. Have you ever broken a leg?DiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY p. 84Same answers.PROJECT

Page: 113/Time: 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 15→ Cross-curricular link: SPORTS• Talk about the 3 persons mentioned here.

Have the pupils heard about them. • The aim is to discover and write 2-3

sentences about other people with similar records. What about other athletes, swimmers etc who have won many gold medals.

• Pupils can use the Internet, encyclopaedias (e.g. under Olympic Games), or ask their parents who may remember such famous people. For example Mark Spitz for swimming, Bjorn Borg for tennis etc.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 1 – ACTIVITY E – p. 57KeY1. have, done; 2. have lost; 3. has broken; 4. have, painted; 5. has taken; 6. has won; 7. have read; 8. have finished; 9. have bought; 10. has gone

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lessoN 2 – a Trip To DuBaiaimsa. The teach the negative and question

forms of the Present Perfect.b. To be able to express oneself about

important things one had done during one’s life.

A. LEAD-IN Page: 114/Time: 10 mins → Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY• From the map of the world at the back of

the Pupil’s Book, show pupils where Dubai is.

• Explain some of the characteristics of Dubai: very hot climate because it is on the edge of the desert, very modern and pro-western state. It has become a popular holiday resort. One must remember it is an Arab state so customs will be of a typical Arab country – see Cultural Corner for more information on these.

• Pupils fill in Yes/No answers.• It is unlikely many children will have been

to Dubai. Some may have been to either an artificial snow centre or a skating rink. Skating Rinks are now common in cities during the Christmas and New Year period. Explain that, because there isn’t enough snow, in many mountain resorts throughout the Europe they have spray artificial snow. It will; be the same as used in Dubai within a big air-conditioned environment.

B. LISTENING Page: 114/Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listeningSee if pupils can guess what are some of the things Mark did when he visited Dubai. These include visiting the artificial snow centre, shopping, seeing the beautiful buildings including the famous hotel which looks like a sail, maybe going on an expedition into the desert. While-listeningPupils confirm their guesses about Dubai.Tapescript

Ben: Hi, Mark! What’s all this luggage?Mark: Oh, hi, Ben. We’ve just come back from a trip to Dubai.Ben: Oh, great! I’ve already been there with my Dad. We went last month. How did you like it?Mark: It was fantastic! I’ve never been to such a great place!Ben: Did you visit the artificial snow centre?Mark: Yes. How could we miss that? We went skiing on artificial snow. It was so strange! Outside in the streets it was 50 degrees and we were at minus 5. Ben: Yes, I felt the same way, too. What about the floating buildings, avenues, towers, shopping malls.... Mark: I’ve seen them all! They were amazing! Did you see the Burj Al Arab?Ben: Yes! It’s the first time I’ve seen such a strange building! But it must be extremely expensive to stay in it! Mark: It must, but do you think the people who stay in it have financial problems or ever look at the prices? Ben: You are right! Did you see the big limousines! Petrol is cheap so they can afford them. Did you go shopping?Mark: Sure! Lots of things are cheaper than in England! We’ve brought back so many things I’ll have trouble putting them away. What about you? What have you done these days?Ben: Well, my parents have gone on a business trip to France for a couple of days and I’m alone in the house except for my sister who has turned the house into a café for her girlfriends. Would you like to come over some time and play with my new Play Station?Mark: Great idea! And I’ll bring over my new Nintendo that I bought in Dubai.Ben: Ok! See you this afternoon, then?Mark: Fine! I’ll be there at five.post-listening• What did the pupils know or not know

about Dubai?• Would they be interested in visiting the

country and why?aCTiViTY BooK

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UNIT 9 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY A – p. 57KeY (suggested answers)

I went there in 2006.I visited many different places.Did you visit Berlin?Yes I did – it was great.Did you go skiing?Yes I did – it was terrific.Have you ever been to Egypt?Yes I have.When did you go?What did you do there?I visited the Pyramids.Did you take a camel ride?Yes I did.How about swimming in the Nile?No I didn’t do that!You see, my parents say no too!

C. VOCABULARY Page: 114/Time: 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 13Pupils fill in the blanks using some of the vocabulary from the previous listening.aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY B – p. 58KeY1. for, 2. to, 3. for, 4. from, 5. in, 6. to, 7. for, 8. by, 9. to, 10. into, 11. for, 12. to.

Grammar FoCus Page: 115/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• All examples show the question form. No.s

2 & 5 also give the negative form.• The aim is to show the difference between

“finished actions” and actions “any time up to now”.

• The examples (1-6) are then linked and placed on the timeline.

• Explain that timelines are a very useful way of understanding visually the meanings of verbs.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY C – p. 59KeY 1. Answer given in the PB.2. Mary has been to Spain and has seen a

snake. She has never travelled by plane

or sung karaoke.3. The twins have been to Spain. They

have never travelled by plane, sung karaoke or seen a snake.

4. Free answer. D. READING Page: 116/Time: 10/ TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: ARTpre-reading• The text is about Ireland so remind pupils

where the country is (they had come across it in Unit 1, Lesson 3).

• Do any of the children enjoy drawing or painting? Have they ever won prizes, for example in their schools? Do they know if the town where they live organizes awards for artwork done by children?

• This competition was set up for the first time in 1955 – what did children do in their free time then, when there was no TV?

• There may be some difficult vocabulary and the teacher would do well to pre-teach this: soapbox carts, creativity, agricultural, categories, prizewinners, ceremony, commemorate, stamps, talents, despite.

While-readingPupils find answers to the true/false questions.post-reading• KeY 1T, 2F, 3T, 4F, 5T• Do the children think such a competition

should be organised in Greece?• Would they take part? Discuss.e. WriTiNG Page: 117/Time: 15/ TB Introduction p. 10• In this activity pupils distinguish between

the use of the present perfect and the past simple.

• Have the pupils travelled much? Find out where they have been: towns and places in Greece & outside of Greece.

• Each pupil makes a list of these places and what he/she did there.

• In the first section they list the places without specifying the time – the present

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perfect is used.• In the second part, because they talk about

“last year” they use the past simple. aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 9 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY D – p. 59KeY1.have invited, 2. have reserved, 3. didn’t know, have you seen, 4. bought, cost, 5. have received, 6. saw, 7. bought, 8. have you ever seen, 9. haven’t.DiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY p. 85Same answers.F. GAME Page: 117/ Time: 15• The aim of the game is to promote good

actions amongst pupils in the classroom. The activity can be played as a game but, through the pupils being proud of their achievements, it is also a way of encouraging pupils to be more responsible citizens both in the house and in society.

• To the teacher, pupils submit 2 questions of things they would expect good pupils and citizens to have done.

• The teacher puts all the questions together and writes them up on the blackboard. The pupil who has done the most should be the Model Citizen of the Class.

lesson 3 – NeWspapers & heaDliNesA. LEAD-IN p. 118Here are a few examples of interesting and real newspaper headlines, which you might want to share with your pupils:Lack of Brains has hinderered researchPoliceman have helped dog bite victimFour have been battered in fish and chip shopGoldfish has been saved from drowingPrisoners have escaped after execution.B. PROJECT Page: 118 / Time: 20 & ongoing / TB Introduction p. 15MAKING A CLASS NEWSPAPER (IN ENGLISH)• A list of useful tips is given in the

Differantiated Activity p. 149.• Follow the tips given and the class should

be capable to putting together a paper.

CulTural CorNer soCial CusToms iN DuBaiWhat are local customs like?

Needless to say, many Arab customs are very different from those in the west, and you should be aware of what you’re expected to do and not to do.

Although Arabs are understanding and unlikely to take offence at social blunders, provided they arise from ignorance rather than malice, you will be made far more welcome if you acquaint yourself with local ways of doing things. It’s important to remember that you’re a foreigner and you must therefore adapt to the customs and social behaviour of the region – not the other way round. In addition to actions and behaviour which are regarded as criminal, there are certain unwritten rules that you must observe in order not to offend local sensibilities. Dress

There are two distinct types of women’s clothing in the region: one for locals, the other for expatriates. Outside the home, most Arab women dress according to religious custom, which means that they must cover most of the body, from head to foot.

Arab men wear the thobe, a loose, ankle-length robe made from fine white cotton (or heavier woollen material in winter). There are different styles of thobe, both in the cut of the cloth and in the fastenings at the neck and front. Perhaps the most distinctive are those worn by the Omanis, which sport a tassel. The thobe can be worn for all occasions, either social or business. An outer cloak, the bisht, is worn on formal occasions and can be very costly, with border embroidery in gold thread and the material itself of the finest quality.

The traditional, distinctive head covering is the guthra, a white or red and white checkered cloth held in place by the agal, a black ‘rope’ which was originally a camel tether. There are different types of agal: for example, Qataris

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normally wear a more African-style headdress, with two long ‘tails’ reaching down the back. Arab men sometimes wear casual dress on very informal occasions or at the beach, but Saudi men are strongly encouraged to wear national dress at all times.

Obviously, foreign men aren’t expected to wear Arab garments, and western dress is the norm. Men should avoid wearing shorts and sleeveless shirts in the street, as is these are regarded as excessively casual, although with the development of tourism, this attitude is softening. However, suits are rarely worn in the Gulf, except for important business meetings and related social events. Standard wear in the office is a shirt (usually long-sleeved), tie and lightweight trousers. Terms of Address

The general formal address is ‘Sayyed’ (‘Sir’) for a man or ‘Sayeeda’ (or ‘Sayedity’) for a woman, followed by the person’s full name. Arab women can be addressed as ‘Madame’.

Rulers are usually addressed as ‘Your Highness’ (‘Your Majesty’ in the case of the King of Saudi Arabia). Senior members of ruling families are called ‘Your Excellency’ followed by ‘Sheikh’ (pronounced ‘shake’ and not ‘sheek’) and their full name. Government ministers of the ruling line are ‘Your Excellency, Minister of . . .’ and other ministers simply ‘Your Excellency’ followed by the full name. Lesser members of ruling families and those in religious authority are addressed as ‘Sheikh’ followed by their full name. Greetings

The most common greeting in the Gulf is Salam alaykum (‘Peace be upon you’), to which the correct reply is Wa alaykum as-salam (‘And upon you be peace’). Other common greetings and the accepted replies are:

Greeting meaning reply

Ahlan wa sahlan

hello ahlan bik

sabah al-khayr Good morning / afternoon

sabah an-nur

masa al-khayr Good evening masa an-nur

Hands & FeetYou should accept refreshment whenever

it’s offered, but note that you should always use your right hand for drinking and eating, as the left hand is regarded as unclean (as it’s used for ‘toilet purposes’). Similarly, you should avoid showing the soles of your shoes or feet, which implies that you think the other person is ‘dirt’, which is obviously highly offensive. You should therefore keep your feet flat on the ground and not cross your legs. Other Dos and Don’ts

You should also heed the following warnings: • Don’t offer alcoholic drinks to an Arab,

unless you’re certain that he drinks alcohol. This can cause great offence.

• Don’t walk on a prayer mat or in front of any person at prayer and try not to stare at people who are praying.

• Don’t try to enter a mosque without first asking permission. It’s unlikely that you will be allowed in.

• In Saudi Arabia, don’t try to enter the Holy sites of the areas surrounding Mecca and Medina. The roads are well signposted to notify everybody of this restriction.

• Avoid putting an Arab in a position where he might suffer a ‘loss of face’ in front of other Arabs. He will appreciate this, if he notices your action.

• Don’t beckon to people with a finger, as this is considered particularly impolite. Arabs might use such a gesture to summon a dog.

• Avoid shouting and displays of aggression or drunkenness at all times, as such behaviour is rarely tolerated.

• During Ramadan, don’t eat, drink or smoke anywhere where you can be seen by Muslims during the hours of daylight and don’t engage in any noisy behaviour or embrace or kiss anyone in public.

From www.justlanded.com

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Photocopiable

proGress TesT 3 (units 7-9)

Vocabulary1. Word Categories. Put the words in the box in the correct column.crime, playwright, troops, guilty, tragedy, leader, play, alibi, to attack, actor/actress, role, to conquer, to destroy, robbery, innocent, sonnet, clues, enemy, battle, suspect, comedy, to interrogate, power, witness, the Globe, stage, to withdraw, territory, information, poem

Theatre Detective story History

Points: ....... / 30

2. Odd-one-out. Circle the odd-one-out.

1. novel comics comedy science fiction2. beautiful princess sensitive real3. storm lightning thunder pour4. screen puppet character hero5. who while then finallyPoints: ....... / 5

3. Gorillas related vocabulary: Find 5 words related to gorillas in the line below and write them in the spaces provided. Then choose any 3 and write sentences.

poachersparkrangerzoosbabygorillasdehydratedafricaforestsstealsellextinction1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Points: ....... / 5

a. b.

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c.

Points: ....... / 5

structures4. irregular Verbs. Complete the table with the suitable form of the missing verbs.

iNFiNiTiVe pasT pasT parTiCiple

wrote

make

built

found

bitten

become

say

left

gonecome

heard

seenfall

Points: ....... / 26

5. simple past – past progressive. “Matilda” is an exceptional girl but her parents think she is just a nuisance. Here’s an extract fron her story. Read it and put the verbs in the correct form.

The Truncbull (sit) behind the teacher’s table staring with a mixture of horror and fascination. Matilda’s eyes were also riveted on the glass. And now , quite slowly, she (have) a most extraordinary and peculiar feeling which (begin)

quite slowly to creep over Matilda. The feeling was mostly in the eyes. A sense of power (brew) in those eyes of hers and a feeling of great strength (settle) itself deep inside her eyes . But there was also another feeling which she (can) not understand. It was like waves of lightning flashing out of her eyes. Her eyeballs (begin) to get hot. It was an amazing sensation . Now the power (concentrate) itself in one small part of each eye and growing stronger and stronger. It felt as though millions of tiny little invisible arms with hands on them (shoot) out of her eyes towards the glass she (stare) at.“Tip it!” Matilda whispered. “Tip it over!”

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(Extract adapted from”Matilda” by Roald Dahl)

6. simple past – simple present perfect. Now read about Roald Dahl, the author of “Matilda” and complete the text with the correct verb forms.

roald DahlHe (be) born in Cardiff in 1916 and (die) in 1990. He (write) 21 books for children and over 50 stories for adults, the most famous being “Tales of the Unexpected”. His favourite colour was yellow and he (adore)

spiders! But he (not/ like) going to the cinema or theatre because his legs were so long that he (find) the seats incredibly uncomfortable.Roald Dahl’s work (inspire) movies – most recently “ Charlie and the Chocolate Factory” starring Johnny Depp – theatrical plays, classical music and opera. His books (be) read by millions of children and they (be) translated to many other languages. Finally, people around the world (recently/organize) many events to celebrate his day and express their gratitude for his works.

7. Complete the sentences below using the words in the box. There are 2 extra words which you do not need.

already, yet, never, then, while, as soon as, just1. “Have you ever climbed Mt Olympos?”

“No, I’ ve _____________ climbed up there.2. “ We’re flying to Budapest tomorrow. I’ve _______________ packed my things and I’m

ready to go”3. ____________ the giant saw Jack, he started chasing him.4. The mystery of Loch Ness hasn’t been solved ________.5. _______________ Cinderella was dancing with the Prince the clock stroke 12.00. She

had to run fast …

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Key to proGress test 31. Word Categories

Theatre Detective story history

playwright alibi leader

actor/ actress crime to conquer

play robbery enemy

sonnet suspect power

poem to interrogate to attack

comedy clues to destroy

tragedy innocent battle

the Globe guilty troops

role witness to withdraw

stage information territory

Points: ....... / 302. Odd-one-out.1. comedy 2. princess 3. pour 4. screen 5. whoPoints: ....... / 53. Gorillas related vocabulary – possible words.1. poachers 2. park ranger 3. zoos 4. baby gorillas 5. dehydrated 6. Africa 7. forests 8. steal 9. sell 10. extinction Points: ....... / 5a. b . c. Free Answers Points: ....... / 54. irregular Verbs.

iNFiNiTiVe pasT pasT parTiCiplewrite wrote writtenmake made madebuild built builtfind found foundbite bit bitten

become became becomesay said said

leave left leftgo went gone

come came comehear heard heardsee saw seenfall fell fallen

Points: ....... / 265. simple past – past progressive.1. was sitting, 2. had , 3. began, 4. was brewing, 5. was settling , 6. could, 7. were beginning, 8. was concentrating, 9. were shooting, 10. was staring Points: ....... / 106. simple past – simple present perfect.1. was, 2. died, 3. wrote, 4. adored, 5. didn’t like, 6. found, 7. has inspired, 8. have been, 9. have been, 10. have recently organized7. 1. never, 2. already, 3. as soon as, 4. yet, 5. while Points: ....... / 10

Total Points: ....... / 100

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UNIT 10 summer is here!

pupil’s BooKpp. 121-132

FuNCTioNs Grammar VoCaBularY Cross-CurriCularelemeNT

suGGesTeDlessoN sCheDule

Lesson 1At the Airport

Being able to welcome friends.Presenting a place using data.

Revision of the verb tenses.

Idiomatic expressions. Time prepositions.

Works of art bring people closer

Awareness of myths and legends of different civilizations.

4 teaching periods1) Cover page

A. Lead-In;B. Listening.

2) C. Vocabulary;D. Role-play.

3) E. Mediation; Grammar Focus;F. Reading &

Writing.4) Cross-

curricular project.

Lesson 2 Visiting Places

Being able to describe a place.Expressing opinions.Making suggestions.

Expressions with prepositions of place.

Vocabulary to talk about holidays, places, museums, restaurants.

3 teaching periods1. A. Lead-In;

B. Reading;C. Debate.

2. Grammar Focus; D. Listening;E. Role-play.

3. F. Portfolio;G. Speaking.

Lesson 3Myths and Legends

Narrating stories

3 teaching periods1. A. Lead-In;

B. Reading.2) Portfolio.3. Self-

Assessment Test.

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CoVer paGe Page: 121/Time: 5 mins.Ask pupils if they like holidays and why.• Where do they usually go?• Who do they go with?• Where did they go last time?• Is there anything about holidays they

don’t like?• Do they travel abroad?• Which place would they like to visit?

Why?• Is there a famous attraction they would

like to visit?• Ask pupils to listen to the cassette and say

what is happening & where. TapescriptTour guide: Welcome to Greece! How was your trip? Tourist 1: Will you be visiting the Acropolis? Tourist 2: I’ve heard so much about the ancient Greek gods. How many were they?

lessoN 1 – aT The airporTaims a. to introduce vocabulary related to the

subjects of airports and tripsb. to revise the verb tensesc. to write friendly lettersd. to encourage pair and group workA. LEAD-IN Page 122/Time: 10 minsBrainstorm the idea of tourists visiting Greece. • Do pupils think that Greece is an attractive

destination?• What would tourists visit first?Allow pupils a few seconds to answer the questions in groups (use of L1 accepted).B. LISTENING Page 122/Time 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 10pre-listening• Set the scene by explaining that Kostas

is at the Athens airport (Eleftherios Venizelos) waiting for Nadine to come from Paris, France. She is going to stay at Kostas’ place for a few days, during the

summer holidays. The flight from Paris to Athens takes about 3 hours.

• When the two kids meet, a dialogue takes place. Ask pupils to guess what Kostas might be saying and to note down their suggestions in their notebooks. You might need to explain a few words such as spinning and aubergines.

• Explain that they need to write down expressions used to welcome a friend, to express sympathy and to make people feel comfortable.

While-listeningIndividually: The pupils listen to the cassette and check their answers.

Tapescript(Speakers: Flight 307 from Paris has just landed. Passengers are kindly requested to proceed to the baggage reclaim area ……Noise ……)Kostas: Welcome, Nadine. How was your flight?Nadine: All right, mostly, but a bit bumpy over the Alps. My head is still spinning.Kostas: Oh, I’m sorry to hear that. I hope you’ll get over it soon. Mark’s flight is arriving any minute now and we can all go home. Mum has prepared moussaka for lunch.Nadine: Moussaka? What’s that?Kostas: It’s a Greek traditional dish made with potatoes and aubergines.Nadine: Mmm, I’m not crazy about aubergines ….Kostas: Don’t worry. There’s also cheese pie and meat balls. The French, love cheese, don’t they?Nadine: Yes, we do. It sounds delicious. I feel hungry already.Kostas: Ok, we’ve got a little time to kill until Mark’s flight arrives. There are some nice shops over there. Let me help you with your baggage…..post-listeningKeY 1. Do you like moussaka? 2. It’s made of potatoes and aubergines. Do you like aubergines? 3. Do you like cheese pie and meatballs?

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Ask pupils to reiterate the polite expressions Kostas used to welcome Nadine and to make her feel comfortable. They can use these phrases themselves to make sentences to welcome their friends.C. VOCABULARY Page: 123/Time: 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 13You read the polite expressions in the left column and ask pupils to locate them in Nadine’s words (B. Listening, p. 122). This will help them deduce their meaning. Then ask them to do the matching.KeY 1a, 2c, 3e, 4d, 5baCTiViTY BooK: Unit 10 – Lesson 1 – Activity A - p. 60KeY1. I am not crazy2. a bit bumpy3. My head was spinning4. get over it soon5. traditional dishes DiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY a - p. 86Free answers.D. ROLE - PLAY Page 123 / Time 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• Set the scene by reminding pupils that

the three friends are still at Eleftherios Venizelos. Mark has just arrived. The flight from London to Athens takes about 3.5 hours.

• Form groups of three and let the pupils decide on the roles and on the clues each pupil is going to use. They can make their own suggestions if they like.

• Remind pupils to use the expressions given in task C.

E. MEDIATIONPage 123 / Time 10 minsIn mediation activities learners should not translate from the Greek. They only relay some information from the Greek text, chart, timetable etc. and perhaps use some information based on their own experience and knowledge. The topic of our mediation task is related to the learners’

social environment and to common social situations they have faced or may face in the future. Learners are required to focus on the topic and produce the output they have been asked to. • Inform pupils that this is a piece of the

original announcement board found at Eleftherios Venizelos and it is similar to the announcement boards found at all the international airports of the world.

• Remind them that they should not translate. Instead, they should read the board silently and use the appropriate information in an answer formed in English.

aCTiViTY BooK: Unit 10 – Lesson 1 – Activity B p. 60KeY1. Flight OA 165 from Athens to Frankfurt

leaves at 8:15 and arrives in Frankfurt at 10:25 on the 15th of March.

2. Flight BA 548 from London to Rome leaves on March 22nd at 9:15 and arrives at 11:30 the same day.

3. There is a flight leaving from Frankfurt on March 14th at 11:15. It arrives in Athens at 16:15. It’s flight OA166.

If you want to travel from Frankfurt to Athens you will fly in an airplane type B737.

Grammar FoCusPage 124 / Time 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 12• Go over the examples in the chart and

highlight the time prepositions and expressions used for each tense.

• If needed, use the grammar section at the back of the book to remind the form and the use of the tenses.

• Then, ask pupils to put the letters of the tenses in the right place.

KeY from left to right C, B, A, DaCTiViTY BooK: Unit 10 – Lesson 1 – Activity C p. 61KeY1. saw 6. liked2. live 7. changed

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3. am 8. took4. go 9. was5. play 10. were running11. were shouting 12. will be

DiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY C – p. 86F. READING & WRITINGPage 124 / Time 30 mins / TB Introduction pp. 9, 10Pre-reading & writing• With your pupils go over what a letter

looks like. Remind them how we start a letter (Dear …), what opening and closing remarks we use.

• Indicate that this is Olaf’s first letter to any pen pal who would like to answer. He had to include personal information (name, age etc.) to introduce himself but there is no Dear ……… opening. Pupils should follow the same conventions with their letter.

While-readingIndividually: Pupils try to find what exactly Olaf’s hobby is.post-readingEncourage pupils to start corresponding with teenagers from abroad. www.kidslink.org may help you give your pupils some ideas on how to do that.Pre-writing• Do any of your pupils have a pen pal?• If they did what would they ask them?• What are their hobbies?While-writingCheck that pupils apply the letter writing conventions previously discussed.Post-writingRead some of the letters in class.

Cross-CurriCular proJeCT→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, SCIENCEA. HOW TO PRESENT A PLACE: ATHENS AIRPORTPage 125 / Time 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 15Get the pupils to work in small groups. Each pupil will be responsible for one subject:

history of the place, the area, the name, the buildings, the facilities etc. www.aia.gr is the official site of Athens International Airport where you may find authentic information. Pupils may also put photos (family photos could be accepted) together with information, maps, charts etc. on cardboard and present them in class.Differentiated pedagogy (**): Appendix, page 150, Activity A. More competent pupils can use both Athens and London tables and present a comparison between the two airports. B. A PRESENTATION BASED ON YOUR SENSES p. 125Pupils must be able to “paint” a picture using their senses.

lessoN 2 – VisiTiNG plaCesaims a. to introduce prepositional phrases which

help us describe an objectb. to encourage pupils to exchange opinions

and participate in debatesc. to revise comparisons of adjectivesd. to familiarize pupils with works of arte. to listen for specific informationf. to encourage pupils speak and write

about holidaysg. to revise letter writingA. LEAD-IN Page 126 /Time 5 minsInitiate discussion on tourism.• Ask pupils to bring post cards and photos

of different places and works of art and stick them on the walls.

• Tourism is very important for the Greek economy. Why?

• How important is it for people to visit a place? Is it only a matter of relaxation and holidays? Do you think that modern people should get to know other cultures and civilizations? Why?

B. READING Page 126 / Time 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 9→ Cross-curricular link: HISTORY

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This task introduces pupils to the topic of the Parthenon marbles and to the debate which follows in C. Returning the Parthenon Marbles. pre-reading• Set the scene by explaining to pupils

that the text refers to a television/radio programme dedicated to the petition of the Greek government for the return of the Parthenon Marbles. You may need to explain what a “telephone vote” is.

• Ask pupils if they know or remember from their History books what exactly happened with the Marbles. Where are the Marbles now? How can they be returned to Greece? How can people help to get them back?

While-readingIndividually. The pupils read silently. The aim is to see what the British Parliament in 1996 said about the Parthenon marbles.post-reading• Pupils are asked to write down 2-3 lines to

express their opinion on the issue; should the Marbles be returned or not and why?

• Pupils present their opinions in class. This way they get ready to participate in the debate that follows.

aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 10 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY A – p. 61Free writing.DiFFereNTeNTiaTeD aCTiViTY p. 87KeYAcross 4 dirtiest 6 most beautifulDown 1 stronger 2 biggest 3 highest 5 older 6 moreC. DEBATE: RETURNING THE MARBLES Page 127 / Time 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 11A debate is not an easy task for young pupils to carry out. It is therefore important to give precise instructions and explain what the aim of that task is.• Set a time limit for the preparation of the

arguments. Pupils may use L1 at that step.• Explain that each group should have at least

three arguments to support their cause. Their ideas should be written down.

aCTiViTY B in the Appendix, page 150, may give them some ideas.• Move around the classroom and help

when you are asked.• Explain that they should talk in turns and

listen to the chairperson.• Pupils could vote and let the school know

the results. They could also start a vote for all the pupils of the school and report the results to a local newspaper.

Differentiated pedagogy (**): See Appendix, page 150, Activity B

Grammar FoCus Page 127 / Time 5 mins / TB Introduction p. 12Design simple objects (a flower, a house) on the board to present and explain the phrases. The numbers on the Grammar Focus table help pupils relate the expressions to the position.D. LISTENING Page 127 / Time 10 mins / TB Introduction p. 10→ Cross-curricular link: ARTpre-listening• Explain that they are going to hear the

description of a painting, a piece of art. What is art for them? Why do they think people make paintings? Is it a way to say something to others?

• Ask them to have a careful look at Chagall’s painting. What do they think it represents?

While-listeningIndividually: They circle the items the teacher is describing.The underlined words in the tapescript are the items pupils should circle.TapescriptTeacher: At the top of the painting you can see a church and some small houses. A woman and two of the houses stand upside-

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down. On the right there is a farmer’s head coloured green. You can see his cap on the top right-hand corner.His eye, as you can see, is connected with a line to the cow’s eye on the left. What does this line symbolize, really? Right in the middle of the cow’s head there is a woman milking a cow. So we’ve got two cows in the painting. There’s also a strange face at the top of the painting, in the church, and one more man below the houses. Don’t you think that the picture is a bit strange? Pupil: Yes, Miss. The painter remembers his village and he has so many things in his mind. Maybe he can’t remember it very well.Teacher: Mmm, I think he wants to tell us that his memories are nostalgic and magical, like in a fairy tale. Now, let’s move to the bottom of the painting…look over here, children, the farmer is holding a small branch of tree…..post-listeningIn pairs, pupils check each other’s answers with their partners.E. ROLE-PLAY

Page 128 / Time 20 mins / TB Introduction p. 11• Form groups of three or more pupils as it is

not necessary to play the roles of Kostas, Nadine and Mark.

• Allow pupils 5 minutes for preparation. Pupils silently decide and tell their choice to their classmates during the role-play.

• Make sure they take turns so that all pupils speak.

F. PORTFOLIO Page 128 / Time 30 mins• Remind pupils of the conventions we

follow to write a friendly letter. You can turn to page 124 (Task F) or ask them to go through the diary writing text of the Portfolio task. Explain that diary writing is not exactly letter writing but since you address someone / something, you have to keep your text communicative and provide information to your reader. More competent pupils may add anything they think it makes their diary more

interesting.Individually: Pupils work on their own. You go round the classroom and offer help if needed.G. SPEAKING Page 129 / Time 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 11pre-speaking• Set the scene by reminding pupils that the

3 kids have visited many places in Greece. Ask questions like: - Do you remember where they went?- What impressed them most?- What food did they like?

• Set groups of three. Pupils do not keep notes.While-speaking• Pupils may arrange their seats and do the

task seated or present their dialogues in class.

• You go around in class and help with the L2.

post-speakingPupils can take the task a bit further by discussing the places they would like to visit but they didn’t have time. Allow each group to talk about one or two more places.aCTiViTY BooK UNIT 10 – LESSON 2 – ACTIVITY B – p. 62Free writingDiFFereNTiaTeD aCTiViTY B p. 88Free writing

lessoN 3 – mYThs aND leGeNDsaims a. to connect the lesson with stories, tales

and myths already familiar to pupilsb. to introduce vocabulary related to

mythical or fictional creatures and ancient civilizations

c. to make pupils realize other cultural dimensions

A. LEAD-IN Page 130/Time 15 mins• Explain to pupils that myths and legends

can be found in any human culture and

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civilization and people invent their heroes and gods as an imitation of their own life, dreams, fears etc.

• You may ask pupils to bring in class some information and pictures of the relevant myths. They may use the Internet, books, films. The following website could help you: www.iys.fi (International Youth Service).

B. READING Page 130 / Time 15 mins / TB Introduction p. 9pre-reading• Most pupils must have heard of Robin

Hood. You can brainstorm on that hero asking questions like:- What is the hero’s name in Greek?- Where did he live?- Why did people love him so much?- What weapon did he use?

• Ask pupils to read the beginning of the paragraphs in the task to understand what they have to look for in the text on page 152 of the Appendix.

While-readingTell pupils they can underline the relevant phrases while reading. Pupils read individually.post-reading• Pupils present their output in class. Brief

discussion follows. You may need to explain some vocabulary.

• Class may watch a film or cartoon story.C. PORTFOLIO Page 130 / Time 30 mins→ Cross-curricular link: GEOGRAPHY• Set small groups of about 4-5 pupils.

Assign one topic to each group. • See Cultural Corner for information on

the different cultures. Useful sites also include:www.cdli.ca/CITE/vikings.htmwww.indians.orgwww.crystalinks.com /incan.html

Differentiated pedagogy (*): Appendix Activity E on p. 152 offers a chance to less competent pupils to participate in the ancient civilizations project and also use

their skills in drawing. Pupils work in pairs.

CulTural CorNer Mark Chagall (1887-1985)

Russian painter and designer, one of the most important painters of the 20th century. In 1923 he moved to France where he spent the rest of his life. Fantasy and the world of dreams characterise his work.

Painted the year after Chagall came to Paris, I and the Village evokes his memories of his native community outside Vitebsk (today town of Belarus). In the village, peasants and animals lived side by side, in a mutual dependence here signified by the line from the peasant to cow, connecting their eyes. The peasant’s flowering sprig symbolizes the tree of life. The painting’s large circular forms suggest the orbiting sun, moon and earth. inca

Between 1200 and 1535 AD, the Inca population lived in the part of South America extending from the Equator to the Pacific coast of Chile. The Inca were warriors with a strong and powerful army. Because of the

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fierceness of their army and their hierarchical organization, they became the largest Native American society. The height of their reign in the 15th century came to a brutal end in 1535 when the Spanish conquistadors took over their territory.

The highest point in an Inca village was reserved for religious purposes. This point was the closest to the sun, which represented their major god, Inti, the Sun God. The Sun Temple, located in Machu Picchu, Peru, was a religious calendar that marked the winter and summer solstices.

The Inca were not only fierce conquerors but they also had a violent punishment system. If someone stole or murdered, they were thrown off a cliff, hands cut off or eyes cut out, or hung up to starve to de ath. Prisons were of no use because punishment usually consisted of death.

The Incas had an army which consisted of 40,000 people. The Spanish army in the Americas, which was commanded by Francisco Pizarro, had only 180 people. How could an Army of only 180 defeat an army of 40,000 men? There are three main reasons for this:

1) Much of the Incan army died as a result of smallpox, which was carried to them via the Spanish Conquistadors. 2) The Spanish Conquistadors were able to convince other tribes, already under Inca rule, to side with them and overthrow the Inca Empire. 3) The weapons used by Inca warriors, though effective in tribal warfare, were no match for the Spanish arms.

By 1535, the Inca society was completely overthrown, and Pizzaro moved the capital from Cuzco to Lima.The aztecs/mexicas

The Aztecs/Mexicas were the native American people who dominated northern México at the time of the Spanish conquest led by Hernan CORTES in the early 16th century. According to their own legends, they originated from a place called Aztlan, somewhere in north or northwest Mexico. Sometime in the 12th century they

embarked on a period of wandering and in the 13th c e n t u r y settled in the central basin of M é x i c o .

Continually dislodged by the small city-states that fought one another in shifting alliances, the Aztecs finally found refuge on small islands in Lake Texcoco where, in 1325, they founded the town of TENOCHTITLAN (modern-day Mexico City). The term Aztec, originally associated with the migrant Mexica, is today a collective term, applied to all the peoples linked by trade, custom, religion, and language to these founders.

Fearless warriors and pragmatic builders, the Aztecs created an empire during the 15th century that was surpassed in size in the Americas only by that of the Inca in Peru.

The yearly round of rites and ceremonies in the cities of Tenochtitlan and neighbouring Tetzcoco, and their symbolic art and architecture, gave expression to an ancient awareness of the interdependence of nature and humanity.

The Aztecs remain the most extensively documented of all Amerindian civilizations at the time of European contact in the 16th century. Spanish friars, soldiers, and historians and scholars of Indian or mixed descent left invaluable records of all aspects of life. These ethno historic sources, linked

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to modern archaeological inquiries and studies of ethnologists, linguists, historians, and art historians, portray the formation and flourishing of a complex imperial state. The Vikings

The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsem*n (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. This period (generally dated 793–1066) is often referred to as the Viking Age. The term Viking has also denoted entire populations of Viking Age Scandinavia and their settlements, as an expanded meaning.

Famed for their longships, Vikings founded settlements for three centuries along the coasts and rivers of mainland Europe, Ireland, Great Britain, Normandy, theShetland, Orkney, and Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, Newfoundland circa 1000. They reached south to North Africa and east to Russia and Constantinople, as looters, traders, or mercenaries. Viking voyages decreased with the introduction of Christianity to Scandinavia in the late 10th and 11th century.

The word Viking was introduced to

the English language with romantic connotations in the 18th century. In current Scandinavian languages, the term Viking is applied to the people who went away on Viking expeditions be it for raiding or trading. In English and many other languages, Viking might refer to the Viking Age Scandinavians in general. The pre-Christian Scandinavian population is also referred to as Norse, although that term is properly applied to the whole civilization of Old-Norse speaking people.

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Photocopiable

FiNal TesT ( uNiTs 1-10)Vocabulary1. Crossword Puzzle. Complete the crossword puzzle using the pictures as clues. Across

2. 5. 8.

11. 12.

Down

1. 4. 8.

9. 11.

Points: .../10 pts

Vocabulary2. Gap-filling. Choose the right word or phrase to complete the sentences.1. I feel a little dizzy but don’t worry. I’ll get _________ it soon. a. over b. past c. under

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2. My friend’s flight is ___________ so we’ll have to wait for another 20 minutes. a. cancelled b. landed c. delayed3. According to the Greek Laws people _____________ for a new government every 4 years. a. argue b. vote c. Negotiate4. Some people think that many Viking gods are similar to the gods of the ancient Greek _____________ a. civilization b. history c. kingdom5. We like camping by the lake where everything is so ___________ and quiet. a. pieceful b. busy c. peaceful6. You can _____________ with your internet friends in your free time. a. pastime b. email c. chat7. There is a _______________ flag on the front page of our book. a. Great Britain b. British c. English8. ______________ is not a flower. a. whistle b. thistle c. shamrock9. Which expression does not give directions ? a. Take the first turning on… b. Go on foot c. Walk along this road…10. New York is a city famous for its high _______________. a. buildings b. lakes c. rivers11. She asked me to give her the ______________ of my Christmas cake. a. recipe b. ingredients c. procedure12. “Do you take part in ___________ expeditions with your school?” a. lumbering b. littering c. planting13. Forests are threatened by __________. Paper recycling b. extensive building development c. reducing waste14. London is much ___________ than Athens. a. big b. bigger c. more big15. Travelling to Paris to visit Eurodisney costs __________ than visiting your parents’ village. a. the most b. the least c. morePoints: .../16 pts

Vocabulary3. Matching. Match words or phrases with their definitions.

1. professional a. a place on a street where newspapers are sold.2. custom b. to make someone believe something3. newsstand c. no longer modern or fashionable4. celebration d. doing an activity / sport as your job5. to beat e. someone who takes part in an activity or event.6. to persuade f. something that people do in a society because it is traditional or usual.7. participant g. to tell someone that you will hurt them or cause serious problems

for them if they do not do what you want 8. to threaten h. when something is celebrated9. old-fashioned i. The amount , level, standard etc. that is typical of a group of people

or things.10. average j. to mix food together quickly using a fork or a kitchen tool.Points: .../10 pts

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structures4. Multiple Choice. Choose the correct item.1. Mary doesn’t like ____________ her mum with the housework.a. to help b. helping c. help2. My friends prefer ____________ basketball to _________ computer games. a. playing – playing b. playing – to play c. to play-to play3. Susan never ___________ her homework in the evening. a. study b. studys c. studies4. What ___________ this phrase mean? a. do b. don’t c. does5. This car ______________ very fast. a. doesn’t go b. doesn’t goes c. don’t does6. Does she often ____________ her grandparents? a. visit b. visiting c. visits7. At the moment, they _____________ the issue. a. discuss b. are discussing c. is discussing8. I _____________ my homework. Can you help me? a. are doing b. do c. ‘m doing9. Why don’t you __________ me at the station? a. meet b. meeting c. meets10. How about _____________ public transport to get to work? a. using b. use c. to use11. This Christmas tree ____________very beautiful. a. looks b. is looking c. doesn’t looks12. We __________ the recycling club this afternoon. a. meet b. are meet c. are meeting13. I feel tired. I think I ___________ to bed. a. ‘m going b. ‘ll go c. go14. My sister ____________ have a baby soon. a. is going to b. will c. will going to 15. We _____________ to Dubai next week. a. fly b. are flying c. will fly16. People __________ be very careful when they’re going on a picnic in the forest. a. would b. will c. should17. The sun is ___________than the moon. a. brighter b. brightest c. more bright18. This film seems to be _____________ of all. Let’s buy some tickets. a. more interesting b. the most interesting c. very interesting19. The train _________ in Larissa but not in Lamia. a. stoped b. was stopped c. stopped20. When I __________ him , he __________ a sports car. a. saw, was driving b. saw, drove c. was seeing, was driving21. The teacher ___________ my name. a. did remember b. didn’t remember c. wasn’t remembering22. My friend ____________ to the cinema for weeks. a. hasn’t been b. isn’t going haven’tbeen23. “Have you ever been to Hong Kong?” “ Yes, I ___________ it three years ago.”

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a. have visited b. visited c. was visiting24. Don’t get in her room. She ___________ dressed yet. a. didn’t get b. hasn’t got c. isn’t getting25. I’ve known John ___________ a long time. a. for b. since c. alreadyPoints: .../50 pts

5. Directions. Look at the plan and complete the invitation. INVITATION TO A PARTYDear friends My house

Come to my birthday party, next

Saturday at 5pm. My address is

4 Marathonos str, Zografou. Here

are the directions:

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

____________________________

See you all there !

Phone number: 210 7428281

Points: .../15 pts

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KeY To FiNal TesT ( uNiTs 1-10)Vocabulary

1.Crossword Puzzle.

10 x 1 = 10 pts

2. Gap-filling.1.a 6. c 11.a2.c 7.b 12.c3.b 8.a 13.b4.a 9.b 14.b5.c 10. a 15.c

15 x 1 = 15 pts

3. Matching.1. d , 2. f , 3. a, 4.h , 5. j , 6. b , 7. e , 8. g , 9. c , 10. i. 10 x 1 = 10 ptsstructures4. Multiple Choice.

1. b 7. b 13.b 19. c 25. a 2. a 8. c 14.a 20. a 3. c 9. a 15.b 21. b 4. c 10.a 16. c 22. a 5. a 11.a 17. a 23. b 6. a 12.c 18. b 24. b

25 x 2 = 50pts

5. Directions.Go straight ahead and then turn left. Go along this street and take the second turning on the right. Go straight ahead until the end of the street and then turn right. You’ll see my house on your left.5 x 1 = 5 pts Total : 100 pts

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aCTiViTY BooK - opeN-eNDeD QuesTioNs: sample aNsWersUnit 1 - Lesson 1 - Activity A (TB p. 18)

a. I like dancingb. I like paintingc. I enjoy readingd. I like playing the violinf. I enjoy going fishinige. I enjoy going to the ice-skating rink

Unit 2 - Lesson 1 - Activity A (TB p. 26)1. Nadine gets up with her mum, at 7:30.2. She has breakfast with her brother and mum and dad.3. Then she gets dressed.4. She goes to school with a school bus.5. In the afternoon she does her homework.6. She and her family have dinner at 6 pm.

Unit 2 - Lesson 1 - Activity B, no. 2 (TB p. 27)1. I put on my school uniform before going down for breakfast.2. With Mr. Higgins I learn to do magic spells with a wand.3. At 10 am I sometimes study in the school library.4. I usually feed the owl 3 times a day.

Unit 2 - Lesson 2 - Activity B (TB p. 29) Hi I’m Irini. We have lessons form 8 am until after 1 pm. In the afternoon myh teacher gives us a lot of homework. My mother who is also a teacher helps me with my homework. My favourite subjects are maths and Greek language. I think I am the best in the class at maths - I often get top marks. I am not very good at history and I dont enjoy the sciences. When I grow up I want to work with computers.

Unit 2 - Lesson 2 - Activity E (TB p. 30) I have got some good habits. I don’t eat too much chocolate or candies. I like to play sports. I also go to bed early and get a good nights sleep. I also eat all the healthy food my mum gives me. But I have also got some bad habits. I listen to music too loud and I think this will not be good for my ears and my hearing. I love hamburgers so sometimes I eat too many of them. Fortunately I play lots of volleyball so that helps.

Unit 3 - Lesson 1 - Activity D (TB p. 37)1. The answer is given in the PB.2. Threre is a busy road outside the school and it is dangerous to cross it. Be careful about

crossing the road.3. Pupils carry too many books to school. Carry few books.

Unit 3 - Lessson 2 - Activity A (TB p. 39)Westminster: Well, you go to Trafalgar Square and all the way down Whitehall till you get to Westminster.Green Park Tube Station: Let me see. You walk down Pall Mall turn right into St. Jamess Street up to Piccadilly, then left to Green Park tube station.Piccadilly:Well, to get to Piccadilly you all you do is walk up Haymarket.

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Unit 3 - Lesson 2 - Activity B (TB p. 40)My town and an Indian village. In my town we have lots of cars. There are fewer cars in an Indian village. It’s cold where I live so we need heating. People wear more clothes in winter here in Greece. There are many more shops and cafes and tavernas in my town than in an Indian village. We watch a lot of television and so do the people in India. In India they have big families with lots of children - there are less children in Greece.

Unit 4 - Lesson 1 - Activity A (TB p. 49) It’s December 16th today and I feel great. I usually go to school but today I’m staying at home. When the weather is good I do my homework in the afternoon and then go to evening classes. I eat at 8 o’cloc. Today it’s snowing so I’m making a snowman with my friends. We are also having a snowball fight.

Unit 4 - Lesson 1 - Activity B (TB p. 50) Dear Santa, I’ve been a good girl and I have helped my parents all year. Bring me lots of presents, especially a pair of skates and maybe a brand new bike.

Unit 4 - Lesson 2 - Activity A (TB p. 51)1. This drink tastes good2. I feel tired3. This soup smells good4. This book looks interesting

Unit 5 - Lesson 1 - Activity D (TB p. 60) Georgia is going to visit the environmental centre in Arcturos. She’s going to take some photos and she’s going to ask the volunteers for information. She’s going to see some bears. She wants to adopt a bear. She’s also going to buy a T-shirt so she can show her friends she loves bears.

Unit 6 - Lesson 1 - Activity A (TB p. 68)Billy’s bag is larger than Jim’s bagYes, but Jim’s bag is lighter than Billy’sBilly’s plane is slow and can fly on water.Yes, but Jim’s plane is a jet and is much faster.Billy’s ball is a football and it bounces less than Jim’s.Of course, that’s becuase Jim’s ball is a basketball - it must bouces more. Billy’s car is hotter in the summer because it’s closed and it doesn’t have any air-conditioninig.Jim’s is cooler because it has an open top.Billy’s computer is more expensive because it’s a laptop.Jim’s computer is cheaper because it’s a desktop.

Unit 6 - Lesson 1 - Activity B (TB p. 69) I like the Smart more than the Porsche. It’s smaller than the Porsche so it uses less petrol/fuel. You can park it more easily than the Porsche. It’s more fun to drive than the Porsche. The Smart is the best car to have in a big city like Athens.

Unit 6 - Lesson 1 - Activity C (TB p. 69) This car does not need a presentation. It’s a Volkswagen Golf. It looks attractive and it is a very solid cat that will last for many years. It is very comfortable. You can get in with many different size engines. The fastets is the Golf GTI and its top speed is 230 km per hour. This has a 2-litre engine. The basic model is the 1,4 litre engine and this is a good family car, which does not use a lot of petrol. I recommend the Golf to everyone.

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Unit 6 - Lesson 1 - Activity D (TB p. 70)Kostas: I’d like to go to a fast food place.Parents: We want to go to a taverna.Kostas: Why do you want to go thereParents: Because the food is healthier.Kostas: But the service is slow.Parents: It’s not very slow!Kostas: Also there isn’t any music that I like.Parents: Don’t you like traditional Greek music?Kostas: Yes, I do but I prefer rap.Parents: After the taverna we can go and get an ice cream, how about that?Kostas: Ok then, let’s go to a taverna.

Unit 6 - Lesson 2 - Activity B (TB p. 72) Pupil A: I think we should take a bus and then take the ferry from Igoumenitsa. It’s fun to travel by boat - you can swim in the pool, have lots to eat and relax. Also for all of us it will be cheaper than by plane. Pupil B: Yes, but going by plane is a lot faster. We can save 1 day. We leave in the morning and we are in Italy the same day, in the afternoon. Going by boat is too slow.

Unit 7 - Lesson 2 - Activity D (TB p. 85) Narcissus was a very handsome young man. Many young people fell in love with him but he showed no interest. The beautiful young nymph Echo also fell in love with him but he rejected her as well. She was so sad that she went to a lonely place and there died. All that remained of her was her voice. The lovers Narcissus had rejected called on the gods to punish Narcissus. The goods punished him one hot day: Narcussus was looking into a stream and he fell deeply in love with his own teflection. He did not stop looking at himself and then gradually died.At the place where he died a white flower grew, which is called narcissus.

Unit 9 - Lesson 1 - Activity C (TB p. 102)1. I’ve lived in Athens all my life.2. I’ve been to Crete on holiday.3. I’ve never been to Zagorochoria.4. I’ve just learnt to swim.5. I haven’t been to England yet.

Unit 10 - Lesson 2 - Activity A (TB p. 115) The different objects, animals, people are diffucult to see. The feeling is very tragic. You can see the suffering. In the top right there is a person with their arms in the air. In the top left, there is a horse clearly in pain. In the centre there are faces which look like ghosts. There is a feeling of pain and destruction everywhere.

Unit 10 - Lessson 2 - Activity B (TB p. 116)1. The guide was rude and unprofessional. 2. The coach was old and it didn’t have any air-conditioning.3. The hotel rooms were small and there was no room service in the hotel.4. The meals were always the same.

The KEY for the Self Assessment Tests of the 10 units is in the pages 91-94 in

the Activity Book so the pupils can check their answers by themselves.

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a. lessoN plaN For e Class eNGlish (reF. uNiT 5 - lessoN 2)Class: E (5th grade)Level of students: A1 - Breakthrough stage (CEF)Age: 10-11Number of students in class: 20-30Time available: 4 sessions-40 minutes eachMaterials to be used: a questionnaire, a listening passage, a text: adapted from www.panda.orgClass organization: individual, pair and group workMethods to be used: inductive/task-based learningOverall theme or topic planned: Let’s do it – Lesson 2 of Unit 5 – inviting pupils to take

action in order to save planet Earth.aimsTeaching aims: to invite pupils to revise the vocabulary on recycling and environmental issues : to use modals can, must, should to express ability, obligation and give advice : to encourage pair and group work : to invite pupils to prepare a presentation on a specific topic using resources and following stepsLearning aims: to encourage pupils’ speaking skills : to engage pupils in a problem-solving task : to activate their background knowledge on the theme : to sensitize pupils to environmental issues : to help them develop critical thinkingCross-CurriCular approaCh

The topic of environmental issues is presented, discussed and researched. The tasks are based on students’ active cooperation aiming at their autonomous learning and at their active participation in and outside the school.A. Lead-in 8/ Presentation of the topic: Time: 3 mins

Lesson 2 of Unit 5 comes as a sequence of Lesson 1, as it is based on the same topic: Ready for action to reduce waste, to recycle and to save the planet. Therefore, the pupils have already discussed these issues and have been exposed to the relevant vocabulary. They have also used the Greenpeace website for more information, in order to fulfill the tasks. Pupils are most of the times asked to do things, to organize campaigns, to present their ideas to people and generally to imitate real life situations. Learning by doing i.e. interacting in meaningful activities is what task-based learning is based on.

In Lesson 2 the teacher introduces the pupils to the new issues asking them:“Do you remember Kostas’ class environmental project?” This question serves as a very

good reminder of what has already been discussed, of the vocabulary already used and helps the teacher take the pupils to the next step and present the topic which is the pupils’ environmental attitude. Questions like

What do you do with your rubbish?• Do you recycle paper at home or at school?• Have you ever thought that the protection of the environment is a personal matter? make

pupils realise that people’s attitude against the environment is of paramount importance. Thus, one of our learning aims, that of sensitizing pupils to environmental problems, is fulfilled.

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B. READING (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS p. 9) Time: 20 minspre-reading

The teacher now explains that the pupils are going to answer ten questions related to the main topic and that a questionnaire is common practice for those who make a survey and use the results in order to change things. At that stage pupils can be encouraged to raise their own questions, which also remind them of what they already know and think, i.e. of their existing schematic knowledge. The pupils should realise that they must be sensitive about the issues of energy, pollution, recycling, waste etc.Whilst-reading

The pupils are asked to read the questionnaire individually. Then, they check to see what kind of citizens they are. As the passage is authentic material, slightly modified for the pupils’ level, it encourages the readers’ engagement with it and offers a good reason for them to read it. If they ask for unknown words, the teacher tries to make them understand from the context.

post-readingThe pupils check their answers and compare them with the results of their partners. It is

important at that point not only to test the pupils’ reading abilities but also to teach them right from wrong behaviour. These questions work as a test which helps pupils see whether their attitude to nature is positive or not. The teacher therefore, discusses the results and praises those

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who got a high score, trying to raise pupils’ awareness about environmental issues. C. SPEAKING & WRITING (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS pp. 10 & 11) Time: 15 mins

This task does not require any use of specific linguistic forms, it is open for pupils to organize and therefore not easy for the teacher to handle. The pupils should be given precise directions. A crucial matter here is time limit, which for young learners forms a difficulty they have to overcome. In order to do this, they develop the appropriate strategies (note taking, diagrams, use of known vocabulary etc.) so as to gain time. Of course they very often use their mother tongue as well, but banning mother-tongue use altogether might not be advisable. Weaker students often tend to stop speaking. Pupils should be made to realise that they use English for communication purposes and that is what they must try to do. Encourage them to experiment with the L2 and use the L1 only to explain something complex that the other pupils might not understand.

Working in pairs or groups here helps the teacher manage classroom interaction so as to offer opportunities for all the pupils to use their limited language and to create a more effective learning environment. In group work there could be one “chairperson” who will lead the discussion and will ensure that each partner gets time to contribute to the conversation. Pair work, on the other hand, provides a more “private” setting for shier pupils to speak. pre-speaking

The teacher tells the pupils that they do not have to do the project right now. They only have to prepare two or three activities in order to inform pupils in other schools about the environmental problems in their area. They should think of what problems to talk about, what ways they will use to present them and what actions they are thinking of taking. The questions given in the SB will help the pupils organize their work and develop their critical thinking so as to decide which problems are the most important. Whilst-speaking

The teacher ckecks that the pairs or groups are formed and goes around so as to help pupils with the L2 and encourages them to use already known vocabulary. The pupils develop their speaking skills in order to handle a problem-solving task. Time, as mentioned before, is important, so the teacher makes clear that they have only three days to prepare the project. This makes pupils concentrate and collaborate so as to present an outcome in time.post-speaking

It is now time for pupils to present their work in class. They must explain what the targets of their campaign are and what they expect to achieve. Pupils may put the targets and their expectations on the board. This way, they make peer discussion easier. The teacher can promote the conversation with questions like:• What is the aim of your campaign?• What do you expect to achieve?• Do you think that people will change their habits?• What means are you going to use to make your problems known?• For an alternative speaking task with a crosscurricular approach teachers may use the

ideas, the Internet sites and the relevant books and periodicals suggested on page 135 of the Appendix. It would be advisable to introduce pupils to the suggested material, although more time might be needed. The teacher should give precise directions on how to use the Internet, books and other school resources and set clearly that the pupils are expected to cooperate and make some small scale research. Cooperation between teachers of different subjects stimulates pupils and teachers alike. The pupils work in

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groups and get ready to present the outcome of their research. D. LISTENING (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS p. 10) Time: 15 minspre-listening• The teacher reads the instructions and explains what a summit meeting for the environment

is: - Important people from different countries around the world meet and discuss ways of

protecting the environment. The participating countries decide whether or not they will sign and respect the agreement.

• The teacher asks the pupils to guess what the passage is going to be about.• The teacher is also given a chance to review once more the relevant vocabulary together

with the words of the items pictured on page 55.

Words likeplastic bag to recyclecloth bag to protestcardboard box to reuserecyclable recycle symbolecological packagingshould be mentioned and pre-taught through the pictures. Whilst-listening

The aim of this activity is listening for specific information. The teacher plays the tape/CD – more than once if needed - and the pupils work individually and put a tick next to items mentioned and a cross next to items not mentioned in the tape. TAPESCRIPT

Activist: ...but of course we can make a real difference! Even children like you can take action! For example, when you go shopping with your parents look for products that have less packaging or use ecological packaging. You can check the packaging by reading the symbols. Even better, you can also buy fresh, non-packaged produce. You can also ask your mum to bring a cloth bag or reuse an old plastic bag to carry home your groceries and other shopping. Why not ask for cardboard boxes at the supermarket? They can be reused for other purposes or recycled.

And one more thing...when you shop, you should always look for products that can be recycled – or have been recycled already. Look for the recycle symbol on the label.Kostas: Do you really believe that we can make older people listen to us? But......( fading out)

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post-listeningIn pairs the pupils check their choices. In groups of 3 or 4 they form the main idea each picture represents and offer more suggestions. One pupil from each group reports to the class.Possible outcome:(picture b) Plastic bags destroy the environment. We must use paper bags.(picture d) Buy products with the recycle sign. We protect the Earth.

GRAMMAR FOCUS (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS p. 12) Time: 10 minsIn the grammar focus section the teacher is asked to use the PPP model of instruction.

presentation of grammar structures and functionsThe teacher asks the pupils to look at the structures in the section and reminds them of

any modals they had met in D’ class. The pupils are then asked, according to the inductive model of learning, to elicit the rules for the use of the specific modals. They are helped by the teacher with questions like:• How are the modals formed? (modal + infinitive)• How are they different from ordinary verbs? (they do not form all tenses)• What function each one has? (used to express ability, obligation, advice)practice

The teacher encourages the pupils to elicit responses using the above structures. The questionnaire on page 53 may prove very useful. Possible outcome:• What must people do with their rubbish?• We should use recycled paper in order to protect the trees.• Students should watch environmental programmes on TV.• We can take part in a protest against air pollution.production

The teacher writes the pupils’ responses on the board to use them later in their projects, in the appropriate context.E. PAIR OR GROUP WORK (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS p. 11) Time: 15 mins

• The teacher explains to the pupils that they do not have to finish the whole task together with the creation of the poster on the same day. What they have to do first is to discuss on what to include working in pairs or in groups of 4. This task (very similar to C. Speaking) presupposes precise guidelines from the teacher. The teacher could also show the pupils other posters which might hang up on the walls and explain how to make it attractive and presentable. The most competent pupils, those who are good at drawing or at team coordinating might be the “leaders” of a group. The pupils have to decide on the ideas they are going to include and the tasks each pupils is going to take up. The pictures on page 56 give some ideas for possible titles:

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Water pollution Animals in DangerAir pollution RubbishRoad safety instruction Save the Forests

• The teacher sets a time limit for the preparation of the poster and moves around offering any help needed. The use of the recently taught modals would be appropriate and the teacher should remind the pupils of that. Arrangements should be made for one more session so as to draw, cut, glue and do any handwriting to finish the poster.

F. READING & WRITING (Ref. METHODOLOGICAL TIPS pp. 9 & 10) Time: 20 minsThe task consists of two parts and it forms an integrated suggestion of the crosscurricular

approach to learning. It sensitizes students in every day multicultural issues, the pupils work cooperatively on authentic material (adapted from the Net), the outcome is as important as the action they take. pre-reading• The pupils are invited to read only the title of the passage, look at the picture and guess

what the topic is going to be. They are, therefore, introduced to the idea that all the people of the Mediterranean share the same environmental problems. If the pupils are not very sure of which the countries of the Mediterranean are, the teacher uses a map to show them the Mediterranean sea and the countries around it. Before going on reading the passage it would be a good idea to revise the vocabulary related to countries, nationalities, geography, weather etc. Also the teacher encourages pupils to speak and discuss any environmental problems of the Mediterranean countries, i.e. let them talk about air pollution, climate changes, forest destruction etc.

Whilst-reading• The pupils read the passage and in pairs or groups they try to guess the meaning of the unknown words.

• The words given – most of them unknown – are very important and useful in order to describe the problem. The pictures which follow add some more clues to the main issue.

Mediterranean ForestsThe Mediterranean is one of the most important regions in the world for its forests. These forests are situated in an area between the European, African and Asian continents and are very important for their biodiversity features – plants and animals.But the Mediterranean forests are under threat. One of the most serious threats is fires. This has caused serious problems in the area during the last few decades. Other general threats to Mediterranean forests are:• Climate change• Droughts and floodings• Extensive building development• Atmospheric pollution

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post-reading and Writing• At that level the post-reading stage coincides with the writing stage. The pupils have read

the passage and the picture captions and they are asked to make a list of possible solutions to these problems. They work in pairs and, using the L2 and the relevant vocabulary, try to come to solutions concerning the environmental problems the Mediterranean countries face. They develop their critical thinking, they practise speaking skills and vocabulary and at the same time they raise their awareness of the serious environmental problems.

• The teacher encourages the pupils to make a list of the problems and the suggested solutions. Then, the findings are presented in class and are compared with other pupils’ suggestions.

The crosscurricular approachSeveral projects can be conducted based on group work:1. The pupils could use the relevant site [www.panda.org]and the school library to read

more on the topic and collect information. Then, they could make posters to hang on the walls and leaflets to hand out to their fellow students.

2. The teacher of English could collaborate with the teachers of Chemistry, Biology and Geography so as to offer a model lesson based on the cross-curricular approach to teaching. Photographs, maps and designs could be used to explain how pollution works, what the acid rain is and how the sea and the fish are polluted and destroyed.

3. Exchange visits could be organized between Mediterranean schools from countries which belong to the European Union through a European Mobility Programme.

BIBLIOGRAPHYChryshochoos, J. Chryshochoos, N. and I. Thompson (2002) The methodology of the

teaching of English as a foreign language with reference to the crosscurricular approach and task-based learning, Athens: The Pedagogical Institute.

Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning, Teaching, Assessment (2001), Cambridge:CUP

Δενδρινού, Β. Τριανταφύλλου, Τ. Ταγλίδης, Α. Κοσοβίτσα, Κ. Κυνηγού, Ι. Λιάρου, Ε. Μουζεκίτη, Α. και Μ. Σεπυργιώτη (1997) Ενιαίο Εξαετές Αναλυτικό Πρόγραμμα για τη Διδασκαλία της Αγγλικής Γλώσσας (Δ’ Δημοτικού – Γ’ Γυμνασίου) Αθήνα: Παιδαγωγικό Ινστιτούτο

Italy

People cause fires

Lebanon

Violence and war destroys the natural environment

Greece

Building de-velopment threatens forests

Turkey

Too much lumber-ing reduces forests

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Wallace, C. (1993) Reading, Oxford:OUPWhite, G. (1998) Listening, Oxford:OUPWillis, J. (1996) A Framework for Task-Based Learning, London: Longman

B. eNGlish proVerBs1. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder.

This means there are no one objective criteria to judge whether something is beautiful – it is a personal opinion.

2. The best advice is found on the pillow.Often a good night’s sleep gives you the solution to a difficult problem.

3. The bigger, the better.The proverb is self-explanatory: if something is bigger then it is better.

4. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush. It is better to have something now even if it may not be exactly what you wanted, rather than risk waiting for it and maybe never getting anything.

5. Birds of a feather flock together. This means that people who are similar tend to become friends, mean both in a positive and negative way.

6. Curiosity killed the cat. You need to be careful because sometimes being interested in some things may lead you into situations which could be dangerous.

7. Don’t count your chickens before they hatch. Don’t be happy about something which should happen. Wait until it really happens and then celebrate.

8. Don’t cross your bridges before you get to them. The message here is not to worry about situations until you get to them.

9. The early bird catches the worm. When you have to do something you have a better chance of being successful if you start straight away or anyway early.

10. Good things come in small packages. This proverb indicates that sometimes the best things come in small quantities. It is the opposite of The bigger the better!

11. The grass is always greener on the other side of the fence. People are never happy with what they have. They are always dreaming of better things. However when they get the “better” it turns out to be the same or even worse.

12. Home is where the heart is. It is not the house that makes home, it is your feelings about a person or a place.

13. It’s no use crying over spilled milk. This indicates it is best not to get angry about something which has already happened but went wrong. Nothing can be done to change it.

14. A kite rises against the wind. If a person overcomes a difficult situation he becomes a better person.

15. Money doesn’t grow on trees. This means you have to work hard to make money.

16. Necessity is the mother of invention.

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In most cases difficult situations force you to be creative.17. Opposites attract.

People very often are attracted by others who do not have their same qualities – i.e. people get together with others who complement them.

18. An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure. It is much better to prevent a problem than have to face the much bigger difficulties later.

19. A picture is worth a thousand words. In many cases a picture or a photo give a lot more information in an instant than words.

20. Safety lies in the middle course. If you have a problem in many cases it is best not to take extreme action – take a middle course and you will solve the problem more easily.

21. Silence is golden. In very complex situations, in many cases it is best not to express an opinion immediately or ever.

22. A stitch in time saves nine. It is best to address problems immediately step by step rather than wait when they may get a lot bigger.

23. There’s no place like home. One’s home is a special place which nothing can replace.

24. Time flies. We never have time to do everything.

25. Too many cooks spoil the broth. When you have to do something, it may be best to do it alone.

26. You can lead a horse to water, but you can’t make it drink. It means you may get people interested in something (e.g. a project) but you can’t always get them to accept your plans of action.

27. You can’t judge a book by its cover. It means the appearance of something doesn’t always reflect its true quality or value.

28. You can’t take it with you when you die. It is not worth accumulating too many goods or making too much money, as you can’t do anything with them when you die. It is an invitation to spend time also on spiritual matters rather than only on material goods.

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C. reCommeNDeD reaDersPENGUIN YOUNG READERS

• Aesop’s Fables Level 2• Seasons – Level 2• The Present – Level 2• The best Christmas – Level 2• Chicken run – Level 2• The Jungle Book – Level 2• The Wizard of Oz – Level 2• Aladdin and the Lamp – Level 2• The Golden Goose – Level 2• The Hundred and One Dalmatians – Level 3• Jack and the Beanstalk – Level 3• Peter Pan – Level 3• The Ugly Duckling – Level 3• Charlie and the Chocolate Factory – Level 3• Peter and the Wolf – Level 3• The Pied Piper of Hamelin – Level 4• A Christmas Carol – Level 4• The Crane’s Gift – Level 4• The Snow Queen – Level 4• Grounded – Level 4PENGUIN EASYSTARTS ORIGINALS

• Anita’s Big Day by Elizabeth Laird• Dino’s Day in London by Stephen Rabley• Maisie and the Dolphin by Stephen Rabley• The Fireboy by Stephen Rabley• The Big Bag Mistake by John Escott• Flying Home by Stephen Rabley• Marcel and the Mona Lisa by Stephen

RableyCLASSICS

• The Adventures of Tom Sawyer – Level 1• Little Women – Level 1• The Gift of the Magi and other stories

– Level 1ORIGINALS

• Ali and his Camera by Raymond Pizante• Amazon Rally by E. Amos & E. Percher• The Barcelona Game by Stephen Rabley• Brown Eyes by Paul Stewart• Girl Meets Boy by Derek Strange• David Beckham by Bernard Smith• Michael Jordan by Nancy Taylor• Pele by Rod Smith• Ricky Martin by Rod Smith• Prince William by John Escott

• Run for your Life by Stephen WallerCLASSICS

• Alice in Wonderland – Level 2• The Call of the Wild – Level 2• The Jungle Book– Level 2• A Christmas Carol– Level 2• Gulliver’s Travels– Level 2• Kidnapped – Level 2• Black Beauty– Level 2• Five Famous Fairy Tales– Level 2• Heidi– Level 2PATAKIS READERS

• A Tour around the Neighbourhood • A Trip to the Zoo • The Iron Trunk • Memories from Koblenz OXFORD READERS BOOKWORMS-STAGE 1

• The Adventures of Tom Sawyer retold by Nick Bullard

• The Elephant Man retold by Tim Vicary• A little Princess retold by Jennifer Bassett• The Coldest Place on Earth by Tim Vicary• The Phantom of the Opera by Jennifer

Bassett• Pocahontas retold by Tim Vicary• Sherlock Holmes and the Duke’s SonFACTFILES- STAGE 1

• Animals in Danger by A. Hopkins & J. Potter• England by J. Escott• London by J. Escott• New York by J. Escott• Scotland by S. Flinders• Washington D.C. by J. Escott• California by J. Escott• Titanic by Tim Vicary• Football by S. FlindersFACTFILES - STAGE 2

• Ireland by Tim Vicary• Oxford by A. Hopkins & J. Potter• Pollution by R. Border• Rainforests by R. Akinyemi• The Cinema by J. Escott• Information Technology by P.A. Davies• Mission Apollo by L. KerrFACTFILES - STAGE 3

• Soccer by S. Flinders • The Olympic Games by S. Flinders

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• Strange but True by A. Baxter • Recycling by R. Border • The USA by A. BaxterNEW EDITIONS READERS

• Hansel and Gretel – Level 2• Sinbad the Sailor – Level 2• Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs – Level 2• Puss-in-Boots – Level 2• Pinocchio – Level 3• Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves – Level 3• The Three Spinners – Level 3

EXPRESS PUBLISHING READERS

• The Nightingale & the Rose – Stage 3• A Trip to the Rainforest – Stage 3• The Ghost – Stage 3• The Frog Princess – Stage 3• The Cracow Dragon – Stage 3• Sleeping Beauty – Stage 3CHRISTMAS TIME

• Merry Christmas • The Story of Santa Claus• The Shoemaker & his Guest

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D. reCommeNDeD BiBlioGraphY For TeaChiNG ChilDreN

Brumfit, C., moon, J., and Tongue, r., (edts),1991. Teaching English to Chil-dren. From Practice to Principle. London, Collins ELT.

Cant, a. & superfine, W., 1997. Develop-ing Resources for Primary, London, Rich-mond Publishing.

Dunn, o., 1983. Beginning English with Young Children, London and Basingstoke, MODERN ENGLISH PUBLICATIONS

Dunn, o., 1984. Developing English with Young Learners, London and Basingstoke, MODERN ENGLISH PUBLICATIONS.

Griffiths, G. & Keohane, K., 2000. Person-alizing Language Learning, Cambridge, CUP.

Halliwell, S., 1992. Teaching English in the Primary Classroom, Harlow, Longman.

Lewis, G. with Bedson, G., 1999. Games for Children, Oxford, OUP.

maley, a. & Duff, a., 1978. Drama Tech-niques in Language Learning, Cambridge, CUP.

moon, J., 2000. Children Learning English, Oxford, MACMILLAN-HEINEMANN Eng-lish Language Teaching.

Phillips, D., Burwood, S. & Dunford, H., 1999. Projects with Young Learners, Ox-ford, OUP.

phillips, s., 1993. Young Learners, Oxford, OUP.

phillips, s., 1999. Drama with Children, Oxford, Oxford University Press.

pollard,a. & Bourne, J.,(edts), 1994. Teaching and Learning in the Primary School, London & New York, The Open University.

reilly, V., & Ward. m. s., 1997. Very Young Learners, Oxford, OUP.

rivolucri, m., & Davis, P., 1995 . More Grammar Games. Cognitive, affective and movement activities for EFL students, Scot-land, CUP.

rixon. s., 1981. How to use games in lan-guage teaching, London, Macmillan Press.

rixon. s., (editor), 1999. Young Learners of English: Some Research Perspectives, Harlow, Longman in association with the British Council.

scott, a. W., & Ytreberg, H. L., 1990.Teaching English to Children, Harlow, Long-

man.slattery, m. and Willis, J., 2001. English

for Primary Teachers. A handbook of ac-tivities & classroom language, Oxford, Ox-ford University Press.

Willis, J., 1996. A Framework for Task-Based Learning, Harlow, Longman.

Wingate, J.,1993. Getting Beginners to Talk, Hertfordshire, Prentice Hall International(UK) Ltd.

Wright, a., 1995. Storytelling with Chil-dren, Oxford, OUP.

Wright, a., 1997. Creating Stories with Children, Oxford, OUP.

resource BooksDrama & shorT plaYs. Scholastic Col-

lections, compiled by Alan Brown,1993, SCHOLASTIC.

primarY TeaChers’ resourCe BooKs 1-2-3. Photocopiable activities for teach-ing English to young children. Com-piled by Karen Gray, 1996- 1999. Mary Glasgow Magazines- SCHOLASTIC.

imaGiNaTiVe proJeCTs. A resource book of project work for young stu-dents. Matt Wicks. 2000, CUP.

primarY VoCaBularY BoX. Word games and activities for younger learn-ers. Caroline Nixon and Michael Tomlin-son, 2003, CUP.

realBooKs iN The primarY Class-room. Junior English Timesavers pho-tocopiable. Sandy Mourao, 2003, Mary Glasgow Magazines- SCHOLASTIC.

oXForD BasiCs & oXForD BasiCs For ChilDreN. A series of short, accessible books for teachers who are new to ELT or who are looking for creative ways of

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teaching with limited resources.

Further General elT Bibliography, incl. websites

speakingFrank, C., rinvolucri, m. and Berer, m.

Challenge to Think (1982), OUPKlippel, F. Keep Talking (1984), CUP. ur, p. Discussions that Work (1981), CUP

listeningUnderwood, M. Teaching Listening (1989),

Longman

readingGrellet, F. Developing Reading Skills (1981),

CUPNutall, C. Teaching Reading Skills in a For-

eign Language new edition (2005), Mac-millan Education

Wallace, C. Reading (1992), OUP

Writinghedge, T. Writing (1988), OUPWhite, r. and ardt, V. Process Writing

(1981), CUP

activitiesDavis, p. and rinvolucri, m. Dictation:

New Methods, New Possibilities (1988), CUP

morgan, J. and rinvolucri, m. Once Upon a Time: Using Stories in the Language Classroom (1983), CUP

Grammaraitken, r. Teaching Tenses (2002), ELBBatstone, r. Grammar (1994), OUPhall, N. and shepheard, J. The Anti-Gram-

mar Book (1991), Logmanrinvolucri, m. Grammar Games (1985),

CUPscrivener, J. Teaching Grammar (2003),

OUP

Thornbury, s. Uncovering Grammar new edition (2005), Macmillan Education

ur, p. Grammar Practice Activities (1988), CUP

VocabularyGairns, r. and redman, s. Working with

Words (1986), CUPmcCarthy, m. Vocabulary (1995), OUPmorgan, J. and rinvolucri, m. Vocabu-

lary: Resource Book for Teachers (2005), Macmillan Education

Dictionaries (for teachers)Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced

Learners (2002), Macmillan EducationLongman Dictionary of Contemporary Eng-

lish (2003), Longman

Useful websites• http://www.onestopenglish.com/• http://www.hltmag.co.uk/• http://www.developingteachers.com/• http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/

learningenglish/• http://www.etprofessional.com/• http://www.iatefl.org/

Kολοβού Ελευθερία-Κλειώ Κρανιώτου Άνναenglish-lesson.weebly.com/uploads/9/7/0/5/9705796/e_class_teacher…· 2. laNGuaG elearNiNG s Tra GY DeF i - [PDF Document] (142)

Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips 141

Με απόφαση της Ελληνικής Κυβέρνησης τα διδακτικά βιβλία του Δημοτικού, του Γυμνασίου και του Λυκείου τυπώνονται από τον Οργανισμό Εκδόσεως Διδακτικών Βιβλίων και διανέμονται δωρεάν στα Δημόσια Σχολεία. Τα βιβλία μπορεί να διατίθενται προς πώληση, όταν φέρουν προς απόδειξη αυτού βιβλιόσημο. Κάθε αντίτυπο που διατίθεται προς πώληση και δεν φέρει βιβλιόσημο, θεωρείται κλεψίτυπο και ο παραβάτης διώκεται σύμφωνα με τις διατάξεις του άρθρου 7 του Νόμου 1129 της 15/21 Μαρτίου 1946 (ΦΕΚ 108/1946)

ΒΙΒΛΙΟΣΗΜΟ

Απαγορεύεται η αναπαραγωγή οποιουδήποτε τμήματος αυτού του βιβλίου, που καλύπτεται από δικαιώματα (copyright), ή η χρήση του σε οποιαδήποτε μορφή, χωρίς τη γραπτή άδεια του Παιδαγωγικού Ινστιτούτου.

ΕΚΔΟΣΗ Α΄ ΑΝΤΙΤΥΠΑ ......................... ΑΡ. ΣΥΜΒΑΣΗΣ...............

ΕΚΤΥΠΩΣΗ............................ΒΙΒΛΙΟΔΕΣΙΑ..........................................

Kολοβού Ελευθερία-Κλειώ Κρανιώτου Άνναenglish-lesson.weebly.com/uploads/9/7/0/5/9705796/e_class_teacher…· 2. laNGuaG elearNiNG s Tra GY DeF i - [PDF Document] (143)

Teacher’s Book • Methodological Tips142

Kολοβού Ελευθερία-Κλειώ Κρανιώτου Άνναenglish-lesson.weebly.com/uploads/9/7/0/5/9705796/e_class_teacher… · 2. laNGuaG elearNiNG s Tra GY DeF i - [PDF Document] (2024)

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